Early in the 18th century, thousands of Africans were being imported each year to the colony of South Carolina, where they were forced to work in clearing land and cultivating the rapidly expanding rice plantations -- plantations such as Arthur Middleton's.
In 1678, Arthur's father (Edward) and his uncle (also named Arthur) had moved from the Carribean Island of Barbados to Carolina. With them they brought experience in plantation economics, including knowledge of how to exploit slavery to make great profits. They settled on a 1,780-acre tract of land fourteen miles north of Charles Town. Within the next several years, Edward had purchased Arthur's share of the landgrant, plus another 3,130 acres. Edward and his wife, Sara, settled on the plantation, calling their home The Oaks.
Edward died in 1685, leaving to Sara and their young son, Arthur, a plantation that was not yet profitable. In the following decade, Africans would show English colonists how to cultivate rice in fresh water swamps, and by 1699, Arthur's plantation had begun to make money. By 1720, his estate consisted of over 5,000 acres and he owned over 100 slaves. By this time Arthur was a well-established member of the Carolina gentry.
Arthur's father and uncle had played a role in Carolina politics. Arthur followed in their footsteps and was active in the consolidation of the profitable slave-holding regime in South Carolina.
In 1710, he traveled to London to discuss Carolina's political problems. On his return he was appointed Deputy on the Proprietary Council of Carolina -- a high honor for a Carolina native. In 1728, Governor Arthur Middleton would make the following statement:
"The Spanish are receiving and harboring all our runaway negroes, they have found out a new way of sending our own slaves against us, to rob and plunder us -- they are continually fitting out parties of Indians from St. Augustine to murder our white people, to rob our plantations, and carry off our slaves so that we are not only at a vast expense of guarding our southern frontiers, but the inhabitants are continually alarmed and have no leizure to look after their crops."
This subject was undoubtedly significant in Middleton's eyes. And it would continue to be.
Early in the 1730s, England allowed colonists to sell rice directly to Portugal and Spain. Rice production and profits soared. The boom, which lasted eight years, propelled plantation owners to acquire more land and more slaves. During this time Middleton more than doubled his land holdings, adding another 8,469 acres.
Arthur Middleton died in 1737 at the age of 56. He owned 107 slaves. Only three of Arthur's eight children survived.
His grandson, also named Arthur and also a major slave holder, would be a signer the Declaration of Independence, play an active role in the American Revolution, and become a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Arthur Middleton, a Goose Creek man was, in 1719 President of the People of South Carolina, a body which invited the King of England to take over their government. Leaders for the Revolution also came from this community. Henry Middleton, son of Arthur, was a president of the Provincial and the Continental Congress. His son, Arthur, signed the Declaration of Independence.
During the administration of Francis Nicholson, the successor of Moore, and that of Arthur Middleton, little of political importance occurred in relation to the colony, except the legal disputes in England concerning the rights of the proprietors. These were finally settled in 1729, by a royal purchase of both colonies from the proprietors, and during that year North and South Carolina became separate royal provinces.
The land included in the grant, in 1678, to Arthur Middleton of 1,780 acres on Goose Creek (Sec'y State's off. Grant Bk. 1696-1703, p. 92 is called "Yeshoe", and in the grant to James Moore of 2,400 acres on Foster's Creek in 1683, the lands are described as known by the Indian names of Boo-chaw-ee and Wapensaw. (Sec'y State's off. Vol. 38 (Prop. Grants), p. 209.) The Indian name of Foster's Creek was Appee-bee. (Sec'y State's off. Vol. 17, Miscellaneous, p. 109.)
John Smith, of Boo-shoo, died prior to December, 1682, as in December, 1682, his widow, Mary, married Arthur Middleton, and on the death of the latter, about 1684, married Ralph Izard. (Sec'y State's off. Vol. "Grants, etc., 1704-1708", p. 250)
The statement as to the communion celebrated on the 2d February, 1696, being the first ever celebrated in Carolina is entirely erroneous. There had existed in Charles Town for many years before that date the Church of England, known as St. Philip's, on the site where St. Michael's Church now stands; also a Meeting House, or a Congregational Church, upon Meeting Street, supposed upon the present site of the Circular Church, as well as a Huguenot, or French Protestant Church, on or near the site of the present French Protestant Church, on a lot originally granted to one Michael Lovinge, a carpenter, and which having been sold by Lovinge to Arthur Middleton was by the latter's widow with her husband, Ralph Izard (whom she married after Middleton's death), sold to James Nicholls on the 5th May, 1687, "for the use of the commonalty of the French Church in Charleston". (Sec'y State's off. "Grants, etc, 1704-1708", p. 250.)
[THE TOWN OF DORCHESTER, IN SOUTH CAROLINA- A SKETCH OF ITS
HISTORY by HENRY A.M. SMITH
The Sword of State was secured and used by the Grand Council until that body passed out of existence with the overthrow of the government of the Lords Proprietors in South Carolina in December 1719.
Thereafter it was used by His Majesty's Council for South Carolina, at least until June 23, 1722, when Arthur Middleton, President of the Council, and acting Governor, informed the Commons House that it was "no way proper to be used by any of His Majesty's Governor" and suggested that the House give it to the "Corporation of Charles City (Charleston) and Port, to be carried before the Mayor."
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