Robert Daniel

Deputy Governor of Carolina Province 1703 to 1705

Governor of South Carolina Province 1716 to 1717

On the death of Henderson Walker, Sir Nathaniel Johnson, who was governor of both the Carolinas, appointed as his deputy for the northern province Colonel Robert Daniel. He was already a prominent resident of South Carolina and was an ardent churchman.

It is certain that he was personally in favor of the extreme Anglican policy which Johnson, acting under instruction from Lord Granville, forced for a time upon South Carolina. Though the contemporary sources of information are very scanty, it has been maintained with a considerable degree of probability that in 1704 the passage of an act by the North Carolina legislature was procured, which not only provided again for the establishment of the church, but also for a religious test.

Martin states that the act provided for "a fine on any person holding a place of trust who should neglect to qualify himself by taking the oath required by law." The act itself, like its predecessor of 1701, has been lost, but it has been supposed that it was substantially a copy of the measure which in the same year raised such a storm in South Carolina. In the northern province the commotion which was occasioned by the act was almost as great.

But the Quakers were directly assailed from another quarter. In 1704, the act of the first parliament under Queen Anne, which imposed a new oath of allegiance, arrived. It made no express exception in the favor of Quaker office-holders, neither did it mention the dominions. The Quakers refused to take the oath and were removed by Deputy Governor Daniel from their offices.

A province law was also passed, that no one should hold a position of trust without taking the required oaths. The act for the establishment of the church, with that requiring the oaths, together occasioned the so-called Cary's rebellion. While the disturbance happened, we hear much more of the question of oaths than of the church question. But all the dissenters in the province seem to have been profoundly stirred, which would have scarcely been true if the point at issue had merely been that of the oaths.

John Ash, who was sent by the South Carolinians to England to complain of the passage of the act for the establishment of the church, was compelled to find passage from Virginia, and went thither over land through Albemarle. Edmund Porter was appointed by the dissenters of Albemarle to accompany Ash.

Porter, with the help of John Archdale, secured from the proprietors an order addressed to Governor Johnson to remove Daniel from the deputy governorship. This he obeyed, and Thomas Cary, who had been collector of quitrents for the proprietors, and who is said to have been concerned in civil troubles in South Carolina, was appointed in his place. Cary was a churchman.

Since Governor Philip Ludwell's authority was the first to be extended over Albemarle in 1691, as well as over the southern counties, he was empowered to summon representatives from them all to a general assembly. But if it should prove impossible for members to attend from Albemarle, as was actually the case, he was then authorized to summon seven delegates each from Berkeley and Colleton counties and six delegates from Craven county.

By the settlement, since 1685, of Huguenot exiles on the Santee the population of South Carolina had expanded toward the north, and now it was possible to begin the organization of a third county. But as the Huguenots, owing to the repeal of the act of Sothell's parliament, had not yet been naturalized, the instruction empowering them to elect representatives occasioned an outcry against alien rule. The six Huguenots from Craven county took their seats, but the assembly proved to be no more subservient than its predecessors had been.

It passed an act giving the suffrage to every man in the province who was worth £10, irrespective of the time during which he had been a resident. Though Ludwell accepted this, it, with an act providing for the drawing of jurymen, was disallowed by the proprietors. The assembly demanded an act of oblivion and a confirmation of the judicial proceedings of the late administration. But before that resolve reached them the proprietors had issued a general pardon for all concerned in the late disturbances, except James Moore and Robert Daniel, two of the leaders of the opposition in Berkeley county (SC).

During the discussion over indemnity the assembly, in response to an instruction, presented a statement of grievances which touched all the main points at issue between them and the proprietors. The most important complaints were directed against the claim of the proprietors to legislate for the province by fixing the jurisdiction of courts, putting in force through the Palatine Court in Carolina such English statutes as they saw fit to select, attempting to govern in general by martial law, prescribing the number of representatives in the assembly.

The assembly complained of the existence of two Palatine Courts, one in England and the other in Carolina, for one often negated acts which the other had approved. Other complaints were directed against the recent change in the form of land grants, and against several matters of detail.

Though these complaints brought no specific or immediate acts of redress, the proprietors, both publicly and privately, began to admit that it would be necessary to govern according to the charter. But at the same time they yielded only so far as it was necessary so to do. They retained the agrarian laws intact.

Also in a special instruction to Ludwell, accompanying the disallowance of Sothell's acts, they forbade the publication as laws of acts making changes in courts, juries, officials, and elections until they had confirmed them in England. Ludwell made concessions to the popular demand respecting the form of deed which should be used in land grants. He also approved of an habeas corpus act, an act relating to juries, as well as the one lowering the qualifications for the suffrage.

Because of their dissatisfaction with these acts, and particularly with the one last named, the proprietors removed Ludwell, after he had been in office about a year. But his successor, Thomas Smith, though one of the most prominent men among the proprietary party in the province, because of the revival of the controversy over the payment of quitrents, soon threw up the office in despair.

More than any English mainland colony, South Carolina's roots were Caribbean. Many of her early settlers were English by way of the West Indies, especially by way of Barbados. Barbadians such as the Middletons of Middleton Place and the Draytons of Drayton Hall controlled the provincial government and determined the course of South Carolina's politics for almost half a century.

One of the Barbadians was Robert Daniel, who arrived in 1690 and quickly established himself as a leading figure in local politics. An authentic military hero of the St. Augustine expedition, he was a highly controversial acting governor of South Carolina in 1716 and 1717.

When Governor Henderson Walker died, Sir Nathaniel Johnson, then Governor of the Carolina Province, sent Col. Robert Daniel from South Carolina to take Walker's place as Deputy Governor of the Northern Colony.

Daniel was an ardent member of the Church of England, and was strongly desirous of establishing this church in Carolina by law. But he knew that so long as the Quakers were members of the Assembly, and held high office in Albemarle, this law could never be passed. Therefore he determined to demand a strict oath of office from all who were elected to fill public positions. This determination was carried out. The Quakers were driven from the Assembly, which body, subservient to the new Governor, passed the law establishing the Church of England (Anglican) in Albemarle.

But the Quakers did not submit tamely to this deprivation of their ancient rights and privileges. Many of the most influential men in the colony, especially in Pasquotank and Perquimans, were Friends; and they determined to appeal to the Proprietors to uphold them in their claim to a share in the government. The Dissenters in the colony joined with them in their plea, and the result was that Governor Daniel was removed from office.

On November 10, 1702, St. Augustine was attacked by Carolina under Governor Moore. 600 soldiers and militia plus about 300 Indians made up the Carolinia force commanded by Colonel Robert Daniel. Captain James Daniel came down the St. Johns River and marched overland. Governor Moore arrived by sea.

The Spanish Governor Joseph de Zuniga y Zeda ordered supplies to be placed in the Castillo and brought into the moat about 160 head of cattle. Inside the Castillo were 1,500 men, women, and children. 230 soldiers and 100 Indian militia were included in this number. The Spanish quickly conceded the town to the British. Moore managed to burn the city down but the people successfully hid in the Castillo. On December 29. General Estevan de Berroa, the commander of the relief force, arrived from Havana and landed on Anastasia island.

The burning of the city left only the Castillo, the parish church (Nuestra Senora de la Soledad), and 20 structures of no value. Martin de Alacano reported that Nombre de Dios was also burnt down. Don't look for anything older than 1702 in St. Augustine other than the Castillo, thanks to Governor Moore.

In the early 1700s there was no Georgia colony to serve as a buffer zone between the Carolinas and the Spanish settlements in Florida.

James Moore, who became Governor of Carolina in Sept 1700, understood the danger from the Spanish and sought to avert it. When the War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War in America) broke out in 1702, the Carolinians were in a mood to act.

The legislature authorized an expedition and placed the governor in charge, with Colonel Robert Daniel second in command. Daniel was to sail up the Saint John's River to a point opposite the city of St. Augustine and march overland to the attack, while Governor Moore led the attack from the sea.

Spanish Governor Joseph de Zuniga told the entire population to take refuge in the fort when the enemy arrived. The enemy laid siege to the fortress. Four Spanish warships appeared late in December and blocked Moore's escape by sea. Moore burned some of his small fleet, abandoned the remainder, burned what remained of the town, marched overland to the mouth of the Saint Johns River, embarked for Carolina, and was gone by December 30.

Former Governors Robert Daniel, Thomas Cary, Charles Eden, and Matthew Rowan made Bath their home for a time, as did Edward Moseley, long time speaker of the assembly.
Robert DANIELL, Gov. SC, has been incorrectly assigned as the son of Roger DANIELL Jr., born Circa 1646 in England or Scotland. It has been suggested that he was either born in York or Warwick County, Virginia, or his father was imported by Capt. Miles Carey. There is no evidence to prove these assumptions. According to a gravestone, slab/memorial, at the old St. Phillips Cemetery in Charleston, South Carolina, he died May 1, 1718. A reference says he died in his home on the Ashley River, near Charles Towne, South Carolina.

Daniell was a Landgrave, Lieut. General; Deputy Gov. of North Carolina, 1704-05, Member Gen. Assembly NC, 1708 & of SC, 1712; Gov. SC, 1718.

Lt. Gen. 1704, Wars W/1ndians & Spaniards, Vice Admiral. Robert Daniell sailed on the ship, "Mary," for the Carolinas in April 1679. His first wife, Dorothy Chamberlaine, was still living when he left for America.

Robert brought to Charles Towne, his housekeeper and servant Mary Cooper, and his son, Robert Daniell, Jr. Colonel Robert Daniell was an Indian fighter with a reputation for bravery and competence in his actions against the Indians and Spanish at Saint Augustine. Following the death of the Deputy Governor of Carolina in 1704, Governor Nathaniel Johnson at Charles Towne sent Daniell to govern Albemarle Colony, in North Carolina.

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