The American Revolution in North Carolina

The Battle of Guilford Court House

March 15, 1781


Patriot Cdr:

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene
British Cdr:

Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis
Killed:

79
Killed:

93
Wounded:

184
Wounded:

413
Captured:

Unk
Captured:

Unk
Original County: 

Guilford County
Present County:

Guilford County

aka Old Martinsville.

After Brig. Gen. Daniel Morgan's victory in the battle of Cowpens, both Brig. Gen. Morgan and Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene knew that Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis would not allow the victory to go unavenged. At the same time, Brig. Gen. Morgan did not want to give up his prisoners or supplies. Maj. Gen. Greene thus directed his army north, while at the same time taking direct control over the troops of the badly ailing Brig. Gen. Morgan. Maj. Gen. Greene then masterly withdrew northward, skillfully delaying Lt. Gen. Cornwallis all the way. In order to catch up with the Patriots, Lt. Gen. Cornwallis burned his supply train and extra supplies.

Maj. Gen. Greene withdrew all the way to Virginia, pulling Lt. Gen. Cornwallis the entire way. This withdrawal was later called "The Race to the Dan." When it became clear that Maj. Gen. Greene and the Patriots had gotten away, Lt. Gen. Cornwallis realized how exposed he was, with no supplies in hostile territory. He began withdrawing southward. Maj. Gen. Greene and the Patriots soon followed.

When the British arrived in the vicinity of Guilford Court House, Maj. Gen. Greene felt the time was right to fight. He had roughly 4,300 troops, of which 1,600 were Continental Regulars, facing nearly 2,200 British Regulars. The battle, which started around 11:30 a.m. lasted for about two and a half hours. The result was a British victory in the sense that the Patriots were dislodged from their positions and forced to withdraw from the battlefield. The cost to the British, however, was too high. The British lost 93 killed and 413 wounded, while the Americans lost 79 killed and 184 wounded. Lord Cornwallis' army was now in tatters. 


In his 1832 pension statement, James Martin (W4728) recounts:

".....he came to Guilford old Court House where he made a halt and hearing that the British was moving towards him he drew up his Men in three Lines about 100 yards behind each other & waited the advance of the British. I was posted in the front Line with scarce a complete Captain's Company commanded by Capt. Arthur Forbis a brave and undaunted Fellow.

"We were posted behind a Fence & I told the Men to sit down until the British who were advancing came near enough to shoot. When they came in about 100 yards I saw a British officer with a drawn sword driving up his men. I asked Captain Forbis is he could take him down - he said he could. He had a good Rifle and asked me if he should shoot, then I told him to let him come to within 50 yards and then take him down, which he did.

"It was a Captain of the British Army & at that instant General Greene send his Aide-de-Camp for me to go to him & I went and asked him his Commands. He told me as the Battle begun as I had not a Complete Regiment he wished me to go with Major Hunter to the Court House in case of a Defeat to rally the Men which we did and collected about 500 & was marching them to the Battle Ground when I met General Stephens of Virginia Corps retreating.

"I asked if the Retreat was by General Greene's Orders, he told me it was. I then retreated with him and ordered the men to repair to Troublesome Iron Works to refit as G. Greene had ordered me, which we obeyed. The British then took possession of the Court House & after a few Days moved off towards Wilmington. General Green hearing of their movements started after them but our militia of the County being so disheartened I could not bring any to join him again."

In researching the entire Revolution within the state of North Carolina to the extent humanly possible, the predominant theme uncovered is that the more one digs into things the more uncertain they become overall. Each researcher has their own bias and focus, and when they stumble upon a previously unknown fact (at least to them) then some of them take this new fact and expand upon it, many times leading to incorrect conclusions.

An example would be - one source interpreted the above statement by Col. James Martin and concluded that although the battle of Guilford Court House was fought within Guilford County it was apparent that virtually no Militiamen from Guilford showed up for this crucial event. This could not be further from the truth. In reviewing over 5,000 pension applications - just for North Carolina soldiers of the Revolution - it is very clear that the Patriots of Guilford County showed up in higher numbers than any other county. It might be true that most Guilford County Captains had extreme difficulty in filling their ranks completely, twenty-four (24) known Guilford County Captains showed up for the battle, even if with only a handful of men under them. Col. James Martin attempted to explain that Capt. Arthur Forbis was the only subordinate to show up with a near-filled company of men - and he could only muster about 24 men. Most of the others could only muster five to ten men.

The same source asserted that 66 NC Militia companies showed up, while 47 VA Militia companies arrived. A more extensive research into the NC Militia concludes that over 185 companies showed up, plus six (6) companies of NC State Troops, and four (4) companies of NC Continentals that managed to escape capture at the Fall of Charleston the previous year. While it is true that most of these units were greatly reduced in numbers, it is quite apparent that many historians greatly underestimate the numbers of men supplied from North Carolina and moreso, these historians underestimate just how much North Carolina contributed to the increased number of casualties in Lord Cornwallis's army, which ultimately led to his defeat at Yorktown.

Along the same lines, many researchers and early historians concluded that because Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene bitterly complained (later) that the North Carolina Militia more than disappointed him at the battle of Guilford Court House, then one must conclude that the North Carolina Militia merely showed up - then ran. Again, this could not be further from the truth.

The North Carolina Militia not only showed up, but they contributed significantly to the Patriot cause. In the overall order of battle, as described below, the entire front line of the Patriot's army was made up of North Carolina Militia - with its flanks (or ends) strongly anchored with NC and VA Cavalry and VA Riflemen. To keep the Militia anchored in the middle of a long line of men, the only remnants of the NC Continental Army was stationed in the center of that long line, supported also with a small regiment of Militia led by a Continental Lt. Colonel.

This front line did precisely what it was asked to do - fire one, preferably two, shots at the oncoming British Regulars, then leave the field in an orderly manner for the second line to do a similar job. Since the battlefield was prepositioned due to Maj. Gen. Greene's orders, all awaiting the oncoming British Army, one can only conclude that perhaps Greene had unrealistic expectations of all Militiamen engaged, including both the North Carolina Militia and the Virginia Militia, which made up most of the second line in the order of battle.

In his 1843 pension application statement, Bryant Smith (R9699) asserted:

"Two days after our arrival to the main Army the battle of Guilford Court House was fought which occurred on the fifteenth day of March A.D. 1781. We were commanded by General Greene and the British by Lord Cornwallis. The engagement commenced about the middle of the day by cannonading after which the British advanced in a column and attacked that portion of our Army which was composed of the North Carolina militia which at the first attack ran, without firing a single gun, the next line fought with bravery and those of us who at first retreated returned to assist those engaged and we kept up a heavy fire for about two hours but at length we were compelled to retreat the British being more disciplined and better soldiers. We lost in this engagement between four and five hundred men killed and wounded."

Some historians assert that the morning skirmish at New Garden Meeting House was part of the same battle of Guilford Court House, and in many ways they are correct. It is separate herein because that skirmish ended several hours before this one, and there was definitely a regrouping on both sides. This battle commenced around 11:30 a.m. on a somewhat warm and humid day.

THE FIRST LINE:

The British arrived from the west marching along the Salisbury Road towards the east and towards the awaiting Patriot forces. Along both sides of the Salisbury Road were fairly dense woods with sometimes even denser underbrush. As each unit crossed Horsepen Creek, they deployed efficiently into the woods and assumed a linear formation to the left (north) and right (south), approximately one hundred yards west of Joseph Hoskins's house. They did so under the immediate bombardment of solid shot fired by Capt. Anthony Singleton's two 6-pounders that had been quickly moved a few yards in front of the nervous North Carolina militia line.

The front (first) line of defense was comprised mainly of North Carolina militia arranged in a long line behind a long fence, flanked on each end with cavalry and riflemen plus a handful of seasoned Continentals.

While the initial Redcoat units completed their formations, three small artillery units hurried forward, two units with a 3-pounder and a 6-pounder, and one unit with two 6-pounders. The next twenty minutes brought an artillery duel between the two opponents, but this caused only minor casualties on either side. Lt. Augustus O'Hara of the Royal Regiment of Artillery was killed during this warmup. A handful of Patriot militiamen were also struck down along with a few horses that were maimed. Patriot Capt. Singleton and his men struggled to pull his two 6-pounders back to the third line, with the help of several militiamen.

All the while, the British numbers increased and their formations firmed up parallel to the opposing Patriot line, a good four hundred yards (or more) to the west. Between the British and the Patriots were two fences and several recently-plowed fields. It was, afterall, planting season.

Around noon, the enemy moved forward through the dense underbrush and woods. Few on either side could actually see very much. On the British right (south) side of Salisbury Road, the 23rd Regiment of Foot and the 71st Regiment of Foot soon stumbled upon an open plowed field in front of the left side of the Patriot militia. Those marching on the extreme left and right ends of the British line - the 33rd Regiment of Foot on the left and the Von Bose Regiment on the right - were both virtually hidden from the Patriots due to the flora.

The veteran Hessian and British regulars advanced deliberately with "steadiness and composure" - and - with fixed bayonets. They made it over the first fence with little issue. However, those facing the freshly-plowed fields were slowed considerably thanks to the wet mud. Those advancing had to keep step with those working slowly through the woods, therefore all were hampered in their advance, none at their usual quick battliefield tempo.

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene had ordered for the Patriots to "fire two volleys and then retreat."

British Capt. Thomas Saumarez described the conditions, "The Royal Welsh Fusiliers had to attack the enemy in front, under every disadvantage, having to march over a field lately ploughed, which was wet and muddy from the rains which had recently fallen. The regiment marched to the attack under a most galling and destructive fire, which it could only return by an occasional volley."

Doesn't sound like the North Carolina Militia simply ran without firing a shot, eh?

According to Greene, Lee, and even Tarleton, the North Carolina Militia began firing at ~150 yards, most likely that early because the riflemen on the flanks had truer guns, therefore they all shared the early timing.

Col. William Campbell, who led the Virginia Riflemen on the southern flank gave an entirely different view. He asserted that the British were advancing quite rapidly "upon which the firing of small arms began." Col. Campbell doesn't say that this was a volley fire from the entire line, but more likely that the flankers were taking targets of opportunity, typical of most sharpshooting riflemen of the era.

Virginia militiaman Samuel Houston, on the second line, climbed a tree for a better view of the upcoming battlefield. He later commented that the North Carolinians waited until the British were "very near" before they began firing.

Sgt. Berthold Koch of Von Bose's regiment claimed that the Patriots opened a destructive fire at approximately 100 yards. Sgt. Roger Lamb of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers put the distance of the militia volley at 40 yards, stating that the Patriots were "taking aim with the nicest of precision." Finally, a Scotsman's account places the distance at "30 to 40 paces." Altogether, the picture becomes clearer - the riflemen on the flanks fired first and at a longer range; then others with rifled guns fired next; and finally, the majority of the front line militiamen fired well within "killing distance" for their guns - roughly 40 yards.

The simplest observation was - the British and Hessians in the open fields were shot at and likely to have been hit, while those in the woods were not as vulnerable. Although under constant harrassment, the British advanced with an "order and coolness" that "could not sufficiently be extolled," later wrote Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton of the British Legion.

Despite their experience, when they came within range, even the veteran Redcoats balked at the sight before them - hundreds and hundreds of muskets aimed directly at them. Lt. Col. James Webster rode up and yelled, "Come on my brave Fusiliers!" This got them moving once again and many even broke into a run. According to Lt. Harry Calvert of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, the Patriots held their fire until his men were "within 50 yards."

The sulfurous cloud of smoke and fire that erupted all along the fence line was incredible, and several minutes passed before anyone could see their opponents once again.

Since most of the Patriots' front line (except for those on the flanks) were completely inexperienced and had never been subjected to a vicious bayonet charge, very few on the front line actually got off a second shot. Some did, but not many. The return fire of the advancing enemy was not all that effective and was obviously quite sporadic, however, the Patriots still suffered many casualties. Having fired the first volley at "roughly 40 yards," and watching with horror as the bayonets kept getting closer and closer, the only thing left to do was - run like hell.

John Warren of Northampton County (NC) and only seventeen (17) years old admitted that "Col. Linton and his men broke and left the field in disorder, deponent returned as far as Halifax where he met some of the Regiment returning under Colonel Linton."

From his tree perch, Samuel Houston summed it up concisely, "Some made such haste in retreat as to bring reproach upon themselves as deficient in bravery, while their neighbors behaved like heroes."

Although he was on the Senior Staff of Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene, North Carolina Col. William Richardson Davie (Commissary General) did not share his leader's opinion of the North Carolina Militia. He pointed the blame at the militia officers, primarily the generals and colonels. Nathan Slade lost all respect for Brig. Gen. John Butler of the Hillsborough District Brigade of Militia, "an officer in whose courage and skill I then had no confidence and have now but little respect for his character."

Col. Davie further challenged Greene's tactical deployment, later writing that "his second line was too remote from the first to give it any support, and the position of the Continentals forbade any movement that could succor the second line or second their effort."

THE SECOND LINE

The British now focused on the second line, the Virginia Militia. Von Bose headed to the southern flank. Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara led the 2nd Battalion of Guards to the center, while the 23rd Regiment of Foot and the 33rd Regiment of Foot followed. The Jäegers and the Guards Light Infantry made it to the northern flank.

The dense woods dictated that the northern flank fighting took place at a much closer range, most behind the thickest trees. Delaware Continental Capt. Robert Kirkwood and Virginia Militia Col. Charles Lynch began a fighting withdrawal pulling the Jäegers and Guards Light Infantry, among others, northward and eastward.

On the southern flank, Virginial Col. William Campbell and Lt. Col. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee made their strategic withdrawal towards the southeast.

The Redcoats never stopped, and advanced "in their eagerness to go to the Virginia line." Lord Cornwallis did not want to lose momentum, now that the wet plowed fields and fences were behind him. Having driven one militia line out of his way, the British now faced a much longer and much bloodier fight against a much more stubborn Patriot force.

The Virginians along the second line could not see the advancing enemy, but they were not unaware that the first line had ultimately retreated, some even running through their lines and answering very few questions in their hasty retreat.

However, the more experienced units held together and reformed on the flanks of the second line - Lt. Col. Henry Lee and his Legion and Col. William Campbell's riflemen on the southern flank; the Virginia and Delaware Continentals, Col. Charles Lynch's riflemen, the North Carolina Light Dragoons, the North Carolina State Regiment of Cavalry, and Lt. Col. William Washington's cavalry on the northern flank. These were preplanned and fairly orderly repositionings, but not without their casualties.

Some of the worst fighting occurred on these flanks. Virginia Col. Charles Lynch lost four (4) of his ten (10) company commanders. He also had eleven (11) enlisted men killed and many wounded. Capt. Robert Kirkwood (DE) and Capt. Philip Huffman (VA) and their Continentals fought courageously, even driving the enemy backwards on one occasion. As the second line collaped they skillfully made their way back to the safety of the third line.

The battle for the second line's northern half quickly devolved into a series of sharp skirmishes as the two foes slugged it out in the dense underbrush. William Ligon of Randolph's Virginia regiment called it a "most desparate engagement." Brig. Gen. Robert Lawson barely escaped death when a British musket ball slammed into his horse's head instead of his, killing his horse instantly.

The two sides exchanged numerous volleys, some estimate between eighteen (18) and twenty (20) rounds each - well past the effective limits of the typical musket's flintlock. This trivial situation is what finally meant that the Patriots had to retire from the second line - the alternative was to face the sharp end of a bayonett while replacing a worn out flintlock, not appealing to too many men no matter how experienced.

Seizing this opportunity, the British proceeded to roll up the Virginians from south to north, then moved eastward again.

But, the cost was extremely high. Every unit of the British army suffered great casualties. Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara was shot in the thigh and he temporarily relenquished command to Lt. Col. James Stuart. Capt. William Home of the Grenadiers collapsed from a severe wound. Even Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis lost more than one horse on that day.

South of the road, the Redcoats had much more difficulty in pushing back Brig. Gen. Edward Stevens's 2nd Brigade of Virginia Militia. As the 23rd Regiment of Foot and the Guards Grenadiers overwhelmed Col. John Holcombe and Col. Beverly Randolph north of the Salisbury Road, the 2nd Guards Battalion straddled the road and assaulted Brig. Gen. Edward Stevens. Again, the fighting devolved into small mini-battles just like the northern side of the road. Capt. John Morton was wounded and his company fell apart. Soon, the regiment of Col. Peter Perkins fled the battlefield.

Maryland Col. Otho H. Williams later recalled, "The Virginia Brigade of militia commanded by Generals Stevens and Lawson gave the enemy so warm a reception, and contined their opposition with such firmness... during which time the roar of musquetry and crackling of rifles were almost perpetual and has heavy as any I ever heard."

An equally vicious battle ensued between the forces of Col. Nathaniel Cocke's regiment and Col. George Moffett's regiment against the British 71st Regiment of Foot. Capt. John Thompson of Halifax County (VA) was killed. Col. Cocke had his horse killed under him. Maj. John Williams simply had enough and fled. The 71st Regiment of Foot had already been bloodied on the first line, but they lost even more men fighting the Virginians. The Guards took severe losses with Col. Peter Perkins and Maj. Henry Skipwith. Many other officers beside Brig. Gen. O'Hara received serious wounds. In short order, the Guards Grenadiers Company lost all of their officers, while the Guards 2nd Battalion lost half their company grade officers.

After Brig. Gen. Edward Stevens was wounded he gave the command to fall back, and the Virginia Militia south of the road went streaming to the rear. Shortly, the other Virginia regiments followed.

At the end of the second line fighting, the British army was very weakened and very tired, and their ammunition was greatly diminished. The next round would be against fresh Continentals.

THE SOUTHERN FLANK

Once the British forces moved beyond the first line, the fighting for the southern flank broke away from the main battle group. More than a quarter mile south of the main line, Von Bose and the 1st Guards Battalion became entangled in an extremely bloody fight with elements of McDowell's regiment under Maj. Alexander Stuart, Col. William Campbell's riflemen, Lt. Col. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee's Legion Infantry, and Capt. Andrew Wallace's Virginia Continentals.

The divergence occurred when Lee's detachments withdrew from the first line and followed a narrow path southeast because it allowed the cavalry to maneuver as one unit. The extreme right of the British line under Maj. Gen. Alexander Leslie unwittingly followed. As Lt. Col. Tarleton later explained, the British became "engaged with several bodies of militia and riflemen above a mile distant from the center of the British army. The 1st Battalion of Guards commanded by Lt. Col. Norton and the regiment of Von Bose under Maj. Du Buy had their share of difficulties of the day, and owing to the nature of the light troops opposed to them could never make any decisive impression." Although Tarleton overstated the distance from the main army, he did provide clues about the nature of the fighting along the southern flank. The Patriots, largely without bayonets, attempted to back off and engage their enemy with rifle fire alone, while the Redcoats tried to close with bayonets. The result was a near disaster for the British units.

The Hessians were initially delayed by unexpected groups of North Carolina militiamen, who fought them hand-to-hand with clubbed rifles and muskets. Hacking their way past, the 1st Guards Battalion chased Lee's cavalry, thereby exposing their own flanks and unwittingly coming into range of McDowell's Virginia regiment led by Maj. Alexander Stuart.

Samuel Houston later wrote, "soon the enemy appeared to us; we fired on their flank and that brought down many of them, at which time Capt. Telford was killed." He added, "We pursued them about 40 poles [220 yards] to the top of a hill, where they stood." The 1st Guards Battalion rallied but were once again repulsed by the Virginians. Eventually, the 1st Guards Battalion drove McDowell's Virginians from their position, however, a number of their officers had also fallen.

At this point, Lt. Col. Henry Lee and Col. William Campbell returned to attack the 1st Guards Battalion. With casualties mounting, the 1st Guards began to collapse. Every company grade officer was struck down. Lt. Col. Augustus Maitland was wounded, retired to the rear, had his wound dressed, and quickly returned to the southern flank. Capt. William Maynard was not so fortunate. Wounded in the leg, he asked Sgt. Maj. Robert Wilson for his horse, and in mounting the steed, "another shot went through his lungs and incapacitated him." Ens. John Stuart lay nearby, bleeding from an abdominal wound, however, he would survive.

The Hessians arrived just in time to rescue the 1st Guards Battalion, striking the Virginians in their right flank and driving them backwards. "We were deceived by a reinforcement of Hessians whom we took for our own, and cried to them to see if they were our friends and shouted Liberty!" It turns out that the Hessian uniforms were quite similar to their friends.

Col. Chapple Norton realigned his 1st Guards Battalion then led them off the knoll and back into the woods. "The battalion again being formed instantly moved forward to join the Hessians; the attack was renewed, and the enemy were defeated," claimed Charles Stedman.

As the enemy moved back and forth breaking their ranks in the dense woods, Lee's infantry and Wallace's Continentals pulled back and enfiladed the British forces from all sides.

The Hessians paid a heavy price. Capt. Johann Eichenbrodt, commanding the 2nd Company, fell wounded, as did two lieutenants. Then, Capt. Alexander Wilmonsky of the 4th Company and his ensign both fell mortally wounded. A wood fire erupted quickly and many of the wounded died in the fire. A few were taken prisoner by the Virginians.

Samuel Houston later claimed that he had fired fourteen (14) times during the engagement of the second line.

Capt. Andrew Wallace of the Virginia Continentals on the southern flank was one of three brothers who died in the war. Capt. Alexander Telford was killed early in the second line battle. Capt. John Paxton was shot in the foot. Capt. David Gwin was hit in the stomach. Many enlisted men fell.

This "battle within a battle" lasted at least thirty (30) minutes and continued even after the main fighting ended on the third line. This prompted Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis to send Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton away from the main line to see if Maj. Gen. Alexander Leslie needed help. Tarleton left half of his Legion on the Salisbury Road and led the remainder into the southern woods. The Hessians were on the verge of destruction when he arrived and rescued them. Tarleton's men rode down and sabered many Virginia and North Carolina militiamen. Lt. Col. Henry Lee had apparently just withdrawn to go help Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene on the third line.

Col. William Campbell reported that Lt. Col. Henry Lee departed just as Lt. Col. Tarleton approached, not before. Col. Campbell was still engaged with the Von Bose regiment. As Lt. Col. Tarleton arrived, the Virginia riflemen could do little more than fire a few parting shots - then run for their lives.

Samuel Houston wrote that McDowell's men were "obliged to run, and many were sore chased and some were cut down." North Carolinians Jesse Franklin and Robert Talliaferro ran for their horses fifty yards away. They made it, but as they mounted, Talliaferro was shot in the back. Franklin cut the reins and escaped. Tarleton's dragoons exacted a heavy toll.

Virginian Maj. Alexander Stuart was wounded and taken prisoner. Many Patriots threw down their weapons and surrendered. Surviving militiamen fled east in the general direction of the third line and the court house. The "battle within a battle" finally petered out, as British dragoons continued to run down and saber any man not quick enough to reach the dense woods to the east and the south.

THE THIRD LINE

The ground between the second and third lines included a slight depression called "the vale" by contemporary witnesses. As the British army moved past the second line they descended a few feet in elevation only to have to march up towards the rested Continentals, who were positioned at the peak of a short rise, along what contemporaries called "the ridge." This slight difference in elevation is what caught the eye of Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene nine days earlier before he dashed to the Dan River.

Maj. Gen. Greene and his Continentals rested for nearly ninety (90) minutes and quietly scanned the visible vicinity. Separated by almost 600 yards of thick woodlands, the third Patriot line saw none of the fighting ahead of them. They could only wait nervously and listen to the furious sounds that somehow edged closer each ticking minute.

Capt.-Lt. Ebenezer Finley and his two 6-pounders were positioned in front of the VA Continentals. Capt. Anthony Singleton's two 6-pounders were once again aimed to fire down the Salisbury Road, having retreated here immediately after the first twenty (20) minutes of bombardment at the start of the overall battle earlier. Also back to the third line were the Delaware and Virginia Continentals, as well as Col. Charles Lynch's remaining riflemen, all who had successfully withdrawn from the first and second lines. These tired warriors took a position along the northern flank for the third time this day.

The light horsemen of the NC Light Horse Regiment, the NC Light Dragoons, and Lt. Col. William Washington's 3rd Continental Dragoons also survived two successful withdrawals and now positioned themselves on the southern flank of the third line, across the road from the court house. With a decent road behind the Continentals, these cavalrymen were ideally situated to react to any possible crisis along the third line.

Finally, remnants of the second line began to appear, and the Continentals steeled themselves, knowing that the British infantry had to soon appear as well. The 33rd Regiment of Foot arrived first and immediately attacked the position of the Virginia Continentals under Brig. Gen. Isaac Huger on the ridge, only to be driven back with help from Capt.-Lt. Finley's artillery. The 33rd Regiment of Foot recoiled and took a relatively high position then dug in. Then came the 2nd Guards Battalion who routed the 2nd Maryland Regiment (Continentals) and promptly seized Capt. Anthony Singleton's two 6-pounders.

The 1st Maryland Regiment (Continentals) quickly counterattacked with support from the three units of cavalry - the NC Light Dragoons, the NC Light Horse Regiment, and the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons. This mobile force stopped the 2nd Guards Battalion and even pushed it backwards. With further assistance from the North Carolina Continentals, the Maryland Brigade retook the captured artillery.

The fighting between the 1st Maryland Regiment and the 2nd Guards Battalion was described as very intense, and often referred to as "the melee." Both units were fairly evenly matched and both had proud histories to live up to. According to Maryland Col. Otho H. Williams, "the first regiment embraced the opportunity and... they bayoneted and cut to pieces a great number of the Guards who had taken our field pieces."

During "the melee," Lt. Col. James Stuart of the 2nd Guards Battalion made his way through a crowd to confront Capt. John Smith of the 1st Maryland Regiment, who was furiously assaulting some Grenadiers. Lt. Col. Stuart thrust his short sword, Capt. Smith avoided it nimbly, then wheeled around and gave Lt. Col. Stuart a back-handed blow to the head, killing the British officer. Capt. Smith was then shot in the back of the head, but miraculously the buckshot had only stunned him.

Around the same time, Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara was rallying his 2nd Guards Battalion and he suffered his second wound of the day, being shot in the chest. This again rallied the 2nd Guards Battalion for a short spell, but they soon fell back and the Patriot dragoons charged after them.

This is when Lt. John McLeod arrived with two 3-pounders. His crew efficiently repulsed the Patriot dragoons with well-placed grapeshot. The guns fired, the Patriots withdrew, and this saved what was left of the 2nd Guards Battalion. By now, the Grenadiers had also arrived. The 1st Maryland Regiment then also withdrew back towards the court house, following the cavalry.

From the position of Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis, the moment of victory seemed at hand. With the arrival of the 23rd Regiment of Foot, the 71st Regiment of Foot, and the rallied 2nd Guards Battalion, he now had a fairly solid line of infantry ready to attack. He ordered an advance, with the 23rd Regiment of Foot and the 33rd Regiment of Foot facing Lt. Col. Samuel Hawes's 2nd Virginia Regiment (Continentals) and Lt. Finley's artillery, and the 71st Regiment of Foot and the 2nd Guards Battalion moving towards the 1st Maryland Regiment and the court house. On the northern flank, Lt. Col. James Webster and his 33rd Regiment of Foot crossed a ravine and attaked Lt. Col. Hawes's 2nd Virginia Regiment, which was supported by Capt. Kirkwood's company. Lt. Finley's guns fell to the 23rd Regiment of Foot.

The brief, bloody struggle for the northern flank resulted in the wounding of both commanders on each side. Lt. Col. Webster fell with a severe leg wound, a shot that destroyed his kneecap and femur. Brig. Gen. Isaac Huger was shot in the right hand, and his sword fell into his lap, which he caught with his left hand, drew from his pocket a handkerchief, tied up his right hand, then moved on.

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene then chose to ensure his army's survival and ordered a total withdrawal.

Upon the withdrawal of Lt. Col. William Washington and the 2nd Maryland Regiment after "the melee," Maj. Gen. Greene ordered Col. John Green to move his 1st Virginia Regiment back from the ridgeline and to form a rear guard across the Reedy Fork Road. The Delaware Regiment joined Lt. Col. Hawes's right flank, then they both withdrew to the east, backfilling Col. Green's previous position. Brig. Gen. Isaac Huger, with Capt. Kirkwood, followed.

Col. Otho H. Williams later wrote, "the artillery horses being shot, we were obliged to leave four six pounders in the field which was our only considerable loss. The General ordered the troops to retire which was executed with such good order and regularity."

Lt. Gen. Cornwallis ordered the 23rd Regiment of Foot and the 71st Regiment of Foot, with some of his cavalry to pursue the retreating Patriots. They killed or wounded as many as they could overtake, until being completely exhausted, they were obliged to halt. The British Legion dragoons continued until a sharp volley by Lt. Matthew Rhea's company of Col. Green's 1st Virginia Regiment halted them in their tracks.

Lt. Col. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee then arrived at the court house after the last of Greene's line had left the clearing. Finding himself facing the 71st Regiment of Foot and the 2nd Guards Battalion, he promptly turned eastward on the Salisbury Road until he later found a cross road that would take him to Greene's camp.

After a short pursuit that was checked by the VA Continentals, the Redcoats broke off their pursuit, allowing the Patriots an unimpeded march to Troublesome Creek.

Stopping about three miles from the battlefield to look at his watch, Beverly Randolph reported to his men that the "general engagement including skirmishes of picket and outpost continued 2 hours and 27 minutes." By 2:30 p.m., roughly two and a half hours after the initial cannonade, the battle of Guilford Court House ended.

The British owned the battlefield and were thus the victors, as the Patriots disappeared into the woods and down the Reedy Ford Road. The British had captured almost 1,300 small arms as well as the four 6-pounders. According to Lt. Gen. Cornwallis's own return, he led 1,924 men onto the battlefield; he had 93 killed, 413 wounded, and 26 missing - casualties that amounted to nearly one-quarter of his army. This was certainly a very costly victory for the proud Redcoats, and they knew it.

Known Patriot Participants

Known British/Loyalist Participants

At the Rear of the Patriot Army:

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene - Commanding Officer and his Senior Staff:
- Col. William R. Davie, Commissary General
- Lt. Col. Edward Carrington, Dep. Adjutant General
- Lt. Col. Lewis Morris, Jr., Aide-de-Camp
- Maj. Ichabod Burnet, Aide-de-Camp
- Capt. William Pierce, Aide-de-Camp
- Capt. Alexander Ewing (wounded), Aide-de-Camp

The 3rd LINE, facing Left to Right (South to North):

Maryland Continental Brigade, led by Col. Otho Williams, with 632 men in two (2) regiments:

1st MD Regiment, led by Lt. Col. John Gunby, with Lt. Col. John Eager Howard and nine (9) known companies led by:
- Capt. Richard Anderson
- Capt. Henry Gaither
- Capt. Edward Edgerly
- Capt. Henry Dobson
- Capt. Samuel Hobbs (killed)
- Capt. Nicholas Mangers
- Capt. William Beatty
- Capt. John Sprigg Belt
- Capt. John Smith (wounded)

2nd MD Regiment, led by Lt. Col. Benjamin Ford with Maj. Archibald Anderson (killed) and five (5) known companies led by:
- Capt. Perry Benson
- Capt. Alex Trueman
- Capt. Jonathan Gibson
- Capt. Lilburn Williams
- Capt. Mark McPherson

Virginia Continental Brigade, plus remants of the Delaware Continentals, led by Brig. Gen. Isaac Huger, with 778 men:

1st VA Regiment, led by Col. John Green, with Lt. Col. Richard Campbell and two (2) known companies led by:
- Capt. John Anderson
- Capt. Francis Cowherd - Carolina County Militia

2nd VA Regiment, led by Lt. Col. Samuel Hawes, with one (1) known company led by:
- Capt. John Marks

In front of the 2nd VA Regiment:

1st Continental Artillery Regiment of Virginia, 1st Battalion, Capt.-Lt. Ebenezer Finley, with 50 men and two 6-pounders

The 2nd LINE, facing Left to Right (South to North):

1st Brigade of Virginia Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Edward Stevens (wounded) and consisting of four (4) regiments:

Augusta and Rockbridge County Militias, led by Samuel McDowell (got sick left the field) and Maj. Alexander Stuart (Wounded/POW), with 150-200 men in four (4) known companies led by:
- Capt. Alexander Telford (killed)
- Capt. John Paxton (wounded)
- Capt. David Cloyd
- Capt. James Gilmore (Rockbridge Rifles)

Augusta County Militia, led by Col. George Moffett (got sick and left the field) and Maj. John Pope, with 100-150 men, in at least four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Smith
- Capt. David Gwin (wounded)
- Capt. John Smith
- Capt. James Tate (killed)

Halifax, Lunenburg, and Prince Edward County Militias, led by Col. Nathaniel Cocke, Lt. Col. Haynes Morgan, Maj. Henry Conway, with 150-200 men, in at least three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Nathaniel Cunningham (Prince Edward)
- Capt. Flood (Prince Edward)
- Capt. John Thompson (Halifax) (killed)

Pittsylvania County Militia, led by Col. Peter Perkins, Maj. Meredith Compton, with four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Dooley
- Capt. William Fitzgerald (wounded)
- Capt. John Morton (wounded)
- Capt. Stephen Coleman

2nd Brigade of Virginia Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Robert Lawson, and consisting of three (3) regiments:

Brunswick, Mecklenburg, and Powhatan County Militias, led by Col. Robert Munford (sick before the battle), Maj. Henry Skipwith, with 100-150 men in three (3) known companies:
- Capt. John Brown (Mecklenburg)
- Capt. Robert Smith (Mecklenburg)
- Capt. Robert Hughes (Powatan)

Amelia, Charlotte, Mecklenburg, and Powhatan County Militias, led by Col. John Holcombe, Maj. St. George Tucker, with 200-250 men.

Amelia, Cumberland, and Powhatan County Militias, led by Col. Beverly Randolph, Maj. William Cunningham, with 200-250 men.

The 1st LINE, facing Left to Right (South to North):

VA Continentals Detachment of one (1) known infantry company, led by:
- Capt. Andrew Wallace (killed)

Lee's Legion, led by Lt. Col. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, with 144 men in six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Armstrong - 1st Mounted Troop
- Capt. Joseph Eggleston - 2nd Mounted Troop
- Capt. Ferdinand O'Neal - 3rd Mounted Troop
- Capt. Michael Rudolph - 4th Dismounted Troop
- Capt. Patrick Carnes - 5th Dismounted Troop
- Capt. George Handy - 6th Dismounted Troop

Washington County (VA) Riflemen, led by Col. William Campbell, with 60 men in two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John McCampbell
- Capt. John Thompson (killed)

Salisbury (NC) District Brigade of Militia, led by Brig. Gen. (Pro Tem) Ambrose Ramsey (may have been absent, only two very obscure references put him at the battle) with six (6) regiments and seven (7) detachments of Militia:

Surry County (NC) Rifles, led by Col. Martin Armstrong, Lt. Col. Robert Lanier, and Maj. Joseph Vincent, with 70 men in at least three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Adam Binkley
- Capt. John Colbert
- Capt. John Humphreys

Surry County Regiment, led by Col. Joseph Williams, Lt. Col. John "Jack" Martin, Lt. Col. Joseph Winston, Maj. Richard Goode, and Maj. John Goode, with twelve (12) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Absalom Bostick
- Capt. John Bruce
- Capt. Joseph Cloud
- Capt. Gaines
- Capt. Samuel Hampton
- Capt. Edwin Hickman
- Capt. John Kimmins
- Capt. William Terrell Lewis
- Capt. Salathiel Martin
- Capt. Paul Patrick
- Capt. Arthur Scott
- Capt. James Shepherd

Rowan County Regiment + Five (5) Detachments (Mecklenburg, Wilkes, Lincoln, Rutherford, Burke), led by Col. Francis Locke, Maj. Ezekiel Polk, Maj. Thomas McGuire, with eight (8) known companies led by:
- Capt. James Billingsley
- Capt. John Brandon
- Capt. Daniel Bryson
- Capt. Charles Gordon
- Capt. Richard Graham
- Capt. Robert Holmes
- Capt. Jamieson
- Capt. John Lopp

Mecklenburg County Detachment of eight (8) known companies under Col. Francis Locke (Rowan), led by:
- Capt. Stephen Alexander
- Capt. Conrad Hise
- Capt. James Ligert
- Capt. Francis Miller
- Capt. Jonathan Potts
- Capt. Thomas Ray
- Capt. John Rogers
- Capt. David Wilson

Wilkes County Detachment, led by Lt. Col. James Miller (Rutherford), and Maj. Jesse Hardin Franklin under Col. Francis Locke (Rowan), with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Richard Allen
- Capt. John Beverly
- Capt. Abram Moore

Lincoln County Detachment, led by Maj. John Carruth under Col. Francis Locke (Rowan), with six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Armstrong
- Capt. John Culbertson
- Capt. John Philip Dellinger
- Capt. Thomas Lofton
- Capt. Josiah Martin
- Capt. Samuel Martin

Rutherford County Detachment of two (2) known companies under Col. Francis Locke (Rowan) and Lt. Col. James Miller, led by:
- Capt. James Harrison
- Capt. Jesse Knighton

Burke County Detachment of three (3) known companies under Col. Francis Locke (Rowan), led by:
- Capt. Thomas Hemphill
- Capt. John McDowell
- Capt. Paxton

Washington County (NC) Regiment of Militia Detachment, led by Lt. Charles Robertson, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Maxfield
- Capt. James Montgomery
- Capt. David Ward

Anson County (NC) Regiment of Militia Detachment + Montgomery County Detachment, led by Col. Hicks and Col. William Lofton, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Tims (Anson)
- Capt. Buckner Kimbrell (Montgomery)

Guilford County 1st Regiment of Militia, led by Col. James Martin, Lt. Col. James Hunter, and Maj. Kennedy, with thirteen (13) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Robert Bell
- Capt. William Bethel
- Capt. Alexander Hunter
- Capt. John Leak
- Capt. Thomas Cook
- Capt. Ferguson (killed)
- Capt. Thomas Flack
- Capt. Arthur Forbis (mortally wounded)
- Capt. John Forbis
- Capt. Josiah Gates
- Capt. Daniel Gillespie
- Capt. Smith Moore
- Capt. Isaac Ralston

Guilford County 2nd Regiment of Militia, led by Col. John Peasley, Lt. Col. Robert Ralston, and Maj. James White, with thirteen (13) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Albright
- Capt. Thomas Barnett
- Capt. Buff
- Capt. Jacob Clapp
- Capt. Henry Connelly
- Capt. James Frost
- Capt. William Galbreath
- Capt. Edward Gwinn
- Capt. William Gwinn
- Capt. John McRea
- Capt. Cook Tate
- Capt. Andrew Wilson
- Capt. William Wilson

Hillsborough District Brigade of Militia, led by Brig. Gen. John Butler, with five (5) detachments and eight (8) regiments of Militia:

Randolph County Regiment of Militia, led by Lt. Col. James Dougan, with seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Bell
- Capt. William Clark
- Capt. William Gray
- Capt. John Hill
- Capt. John Johnston
- Capt. John Knight
- Capt. William Hargrove Searcey

Chatham County Regiment Detachment of two (2) known companies, led by
- Capt. Edward Douglas
- Capt. Nicholas

Wake County Regiment Detachment of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Phillips
- Capt. John Trent

Bladen County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Wilmington District Brigade), led by Lt. Col. James Richardson, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Cade
- Capt. William Ellis
- Capt. Jared Irwin

Cumberland County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Wilmington District Brigade) of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Archibald Smith
- Capt. Patrick Smith

Duplin County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Wilmington District Brigade) of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Jonathan Taylor

NC Regiment of Continentals, led by Lt. Col. Henry "Hal" Dixon and Maj. Reading Blount, with five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Joshua Hadley
- Capt. William Lytle
- Capt. Griffith John McRee
- Capt. Matthew Ramsey
- Capt. Edward Yarborough

1st Continental Artillery Regiment of Virginia, 1st Battalion, Capt. Anthony Singleton - 12th Company, with 50 men and two 6-pounders

Orange County 3rd Regiment, led by Lt. Col. Archibald Lytle, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Clendenen
- Capt. Thomas Hamilton

Orange County 2nd Regiment, led by Lt. Col. Robert Mebane, with six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Nathaniel Christmas
- Capt. George Hodge
- Capt. John Hudgins (Chatham County Regiment)
- Capt. William Jamieson
- Capt. Matthew McCauley
- Capt. William Nunn

Orange County 1st Regiment, led by Lt. Col. Thomas Farmer and Maj. William Mattal, with seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Cummings
- Capt. Gresham Davis
- Capt. James Haven
- Capt. Samuel Johnston
- Capt. Etheldred Jones (Wake County)
- Capt. Francis Jones (Wake County)
- Capt. William Ray

Caswell County Regiment, led by Col. William Moore, Maj. Thomas Harrison, and Maj. Archibald Murphy, with twenty (20) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Lewis Bledsoe (Wake)
- Capt. David Caldwell (Rowan)
- Capt. Josiah Cole
- Capt. Frederick Debow
- Capt. Benjamin Douglas
- Capt. John Douglas
- Capt. William Douglas
- Capt. John McMullen (Orange)
- Capt. Daniel Odom
- Capt. George Oldham
- Capt. John Oldham
- Capt. Robert Park
- Capt. Solomon Park
- Capt. Hardin Perkins
- Capt. Dudley Reynolds
- Capt. William Sanders
- Capt. Sargent
- Capt. Richard Saunders
- Capt. Olin Terry
- Capt. Wallace

Granville County Regiment, led by Col. Joseph Taylor, Lt. Col. John Taylor, Maj. William Gill, Maj. Richard Harrison, and Maj. Absalom Tatum, with ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Bennett
- Capt. Richard Bradford
- Capt. Richard Harrison
- Capt. William Hester
- Capt. William Hicks
- Capt. Stephen Merritt
- Capt. James Pierce
- Capt. William Richards (Franklin County)
- Capt. James Ross
- Capt. Solomon Walker

Halifax District Brigade of Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Thomas Eaton. with five (5) detachments and seven (7) regiments of Militia:

Jones County Regiment Detachment (detached from the New Bern District Brigade) of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Joseph Rhodes

Johnston County Regiment Detachment (detached from the New Bern District Brigade), led by Col. William Bryan, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Hardy Bryan

Hyde County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Edenton District Brigade of Militia), led by Lt. Col. John Eborne, with unknown number of men.

Camden County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Edenton District Brigade) of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. John Forbes (killed)

Gates County Regiment Detachment (detached from the Edenton District Brigade) of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Abner Perry

Martin County Regiment detachment led by Col. Whitmell Hill, Lt. Col. Kenneth McKenzie, Maj. John Everett, with seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Ballard
- Capt. John Bryant
- Capt. James Evans
- Capt. Benjamin Hardison
- Capt. Hill
- Capt. John Kennedy
- Capt. Taylor

Northampton County Regiment detachment led by Col. Andrew Haynes and Maj. John Short, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Benjamin Drew
- Capt. William Madray

Halifax County Regiment detachment led by Col. Pinketham Eaton, with eight (8) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Abner Ellen
- Capt. John Hargrove
- Capt. Elisha Hurt
- Capt. Levi Lane
- Capt. Nicholas Long, Jr.
- Capt. Newsom
- Capt. William Ptolemy Powell
- Capt. Cary Whitaker

Edgecombe County Regiment detachment led by Lt. Col. John Eaton, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Simon Lee
- Capt. William Meady
- Capt. Etheldred Phillips

Nash County Regiment detachment led by Lt. Col. William Thomas Linton and Maj. John Sharp, with six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Armstrong (Pitt)
- Capt. Edward Gandy
- Capt. Exum Phillips (Edgecombe)
- Capt. John Powers (Halifax)
- Capt. Joseph Sessions (Wayne)
- Capt. William Williams

Franklin County Regiment detachment led by Col. Benjamin Williams (Johnston County), with five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Bell (Edgecombe)
- Capt. Benjamin Eaves
- Capt. Daniel Harris
- Capt. George Nasworthy (Warren)
- Capt. Edward Richardson

Warren County Regiment detachment led by Col. Herbert Haynes, Maj. John Hawkins, and Maj. Agrippa Nichols, with six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Christmas
- Capt. Thomas Christmas
- Capt. John Macon
- Capt. Joel Parish (Franklin)
- Capt. Moses Sherron
- Capt. John White

Botetourt County Riflemen, led by Col. Charles Lynch, Maj. Thomas Rowland, with 200 men in ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Capt. David Beard (wounded)
- Capt. George Hairston
- Capt. Thomas Helm (mortally wounded)
- Capt. Hoyd
- Capt. William Jones (killed)
- Capt. William McClenahan
- Capt. James Moon (mortally wounded)
- Capt. Bowen Price
- Maj. George Waller
- Capt. John Waller

VA Continentals Detachment of one (1) known infantry company, led by:
- Capt. Phillip Huffman (killed)

DE Continentals Detachment of two (2) known infantry companies, led by:
- Capt. Robert Kirkwood with 90 men
- Capt. Peter Jacquett with 90 men

3rd Continental Light Dragoons + Two (2) Detachments of Mounted Minutemen and Dragoons, led by Lt. Col. William Washington (VA), Maj. Richard Call, with 84 men in five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Barrett (Wounded/POW)
- Capt. Walker Baylor
- Capt. William Parsons
- Capt. John Reid (Mecklenburg County, NC)
- Capt. John Thompson (Wake County, NC)

1st Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons Detachment of one (1) company, led by:
- Capt. Griffin Fauntleroy (Mortally Wounded/POW)

Prince Edward County (VA), Mounted Minutemen Detahment of one (1) known company, led by Capt. Andrew Baker with 30 men.

NC Light Horse Regiment, led by Col. James Read and Lt. Col. Thomas Taylor with 170 men in ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Asa Bryan (Johnston County)
- Capt. Samuel Crowell (Halifax County)
- Capt. John Denby (Franklin County)
- Capt. Edward Gandy (Nash County)
- Capt. Jordan Harris (Warren County)
- Capt. Horne (Martin County)
- Capt. Joel Lewis (Wilkes County)
- Capt. Randolph (Edgecombe County)
- Capt. Robinson (Johnston County)
- Capt. Thomas Thompson (Orange County)

NC Light Dragoons Detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Mordecai Clark

Total Patriot Forces - 4,000 - 4,400

Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis - Commanding Officer and his Staff:
- Maj. John Despond, Adjutant General
- Maj. Richard England, QM General
- Charles Stedman, Commissary General
- Maj. Alexander Ross, Secretary
- Capt. Henry Broderick, Aide-de-Camp

Brigade of Guards, led by Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara (wounded), with 481 men in the following units:

1st Guards Battalion, led by Col. Chapple Norton, with three (3) companies led by:
- Lt. Col. Augustus Maitland (wounded) - 1st Company
- Capt. William Maynard (wounded) - 2nd Company
- Lt. Col. William Dunglass - Grenadier Company

2nd Guards Battalion, led by Col. James Stuart (killed), with three (3) companies led by:
- Lt. Col. Robert Lovelace - 3rd Company
- Lt. Col. Thomas Swanton - 4th Company
- Capt. William Home (mortally wounded) - Grenadiers

Guards Light Infantry, led by Lt. Col. Lord Francis Dundas, with three (3) companies led by:
- Capt. Francis Richardson - 3rd Scots Guards
- Unknown - Coldstream Guards
- Lt. Col. Francis Dundas - 1st Foot Guards

33rd Regiment of Foot, led by Lt. Col. James Webster, Maj. William Dansey, with 234 men in two (2) known companies led by:
- Capt. Frederick Cornwallis
- Capt. William Gore - Light Infantry Company

23rd Regiment of Foot (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 238 men in three (3) known companies led by:
- Capt. Forbes Champagne
- Capt. Thomas Peter (wounded)
- Capt. Thomas Saumarez - Grenadier Company

7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers), led by Unknown

III Feld Jäger Regiment Anspach-Beyreuth detachment of 76 men led by Capt. Friedrich Wilhelm Von Röder

71st Regiment of Foot (Fraser's Highlanders), led by Maj. Gen. Alexander Leslie, with 244 men from the 2nd Battalion with one known company led by Capt. Robert Hutcheson

Hesse-Kassel Musketeer Regiment Von Bose, led by Maj. Johann Christian Du Buy, with 321 men in five (5) known companies led by:
- Capt. Alexander Wilmonsky (mortally wounded)
- Capt. Moritz von Stein
- Capt. Johann Eichenbrodt (wounded)
- Capt. Herman Christian Rall
- Capt. Frederick von Scheer

Royal Regiment of Artillery, with 50 men in three (3) known companies led by:
- Lt. John MacLeod - 3rd Battalion, Number 1 Company, with one 6-pounder and one 3-pounder
- Lt. Augustus O'Hara (killed) - 4th Battalion, Number 6 Company, with two 6-pounders
- Lt. John Smith, with one 6-pounder and one 3-pounder

British Legion, led by Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, with 272 men in the following companies led by:
- Capt. David Ogilvie - Cavalry
- Capt. David Kinlock - Cavalry
- Capt. Richard Hovenden - Cavalry
- Capt. Thomas Sanford - Cavalry
- Capt. Francis Gildart - Cavalry
- Lt. Nathaniel Vernon - Jacob James's Troop (Cavalry)
- Capt. Patrick Stewart - Mounted Infantry
- Capt. Thomas Miller - Mounted Infantry
- Capt. Charles McDonald - Mounted Infantry
- Lt. Donald McLeod - Rousselet's Company

Prince of Wales American Volunteers detachment of 10 men led by Ensign Patrick Garrett

Total British Forces - 1,900 to 2,200 Soldiers

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© 2012 - J.D. Lewis - PO Box 1188 - Little River, SC 29566 - All Rights Reserved