South Carolina Education - Richland County

Year County Established

County Webpage Herein

County Seat Webpage Herein

1785

Richland County

Columbia
 
On December 19, 1795, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to incorporate a new Academy in the town of Columbia.
On December 19, 1801, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to charter the South Carolina College, and they named the original thirteen (13) trustees. They also appropriated $50,000 as initial funding to construct the college.

Chartered in 1801 as the S.C. College, opened January 10, 1805. Entire student body volunteered for Confederate service, 1861. Soldiers' Hospital, 1862 - 65. Rechartered as U. of S.C. in 1865. Radical Control 1873-77. Closed 1877- 80. College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts 1880-82. S. C. College 1882 - 87. U. of S. C. 1887 - 90. S. C. College 1890 - 1905. U. of S. C. 1906.

Faithful index to the ambitious and fortunes of the state.

On December 18, 1802, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Minerva Society, located in the community of Minervaville and authorized assets up to $10,000. The school was led by Professor William James Bingham, who later founded the Bingham School in North Carolina. This school was closed in 1834 and an Act of the legislature authorized the trustees to sell the property and turn over any remaining money to the Beulah Baptist Church (Section X).
On December 17, 1803, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which provided for the trustees of the South Carolina College to elect a Chairman and authorized the trustees to exchange town lots as they deemed appropriate for the better use of the college.
On December 19, 1805, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Columbia Library Society.
On December 21, 1811, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to provide authorization and appropriation of $1,600 per annum for a Professor of Chemistry at the South Carolina College in Columbia.
On December 21, 1814, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Uranian Society in Columbia. This organization was established to promote the improvement of church and choral music.
Also on December 21, 1814, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which appropriated State funds to specific branches of the government, and which included money for a new Professor of Logic and Moral Philisophy at the South Carolina College in Columbia.
On December 20, 1820, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Clariosophic Society and Euphradian Society, the result of splitting the earlier Philomathic Society in February of 1806. It took this long to secure their corporate charters.

Authorized by legislature 1792, the Columbia Female Academy was located here from about 1820 to 1883, when this property was leased to Columbia Public School Commissioners, two of whom still represent the Academy Board. The remodeled academy became the first Columbia High School, in use until 1915.

On December 20, 1821, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the establishment of the State Lunatic Asylum to be located in Columbia, and named four (4) commissioners to administer this Act. A year later, on December 21, 1822, the South Carolina General Assembly passed another Act, which gave full title of the lot "upon which the Lunatic Asylum stands, containing four acres, butting and bounding on Upper, Boundary, Bull, Pickens and Sumter streets" to the Trustees and Visitors of said Asylum.
On December 20, 1825, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which redefined the number of trustees of the South Carolina College at Columbia, and defined their terms at four years.
On December 20, 1826, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Franklin Debating Club of Columbia, with assets up to $5,000 authorized.

Trustees appointed by legislature 1792 were incorporated 1795 and served as trustees for male and female academies. School located here 1827 on land given by Gov. John Taylor. Though publicly endowed, the school was conducted as a private academy until 1883 when it was merged with public school system. Hugh S. Thompson, Governor of S. C. 1882-86, was principal of male academy 1865-80.

On December 18, 1827, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to carry into operation the State Lunatic Asylum in Columbia, and created the position known as Regents, to be appointed by the Legislature and to hold their offices for six years. Defined how patients were to be admitted. On December 18, 1829, the General Assembly passed another Act, which provided clarification on how to manage the State Lunatic Asylum.

At Barhamville, about ½ mi. west of this point, a famous girls' school, founded by Dr. Elias Marks (1790-1886), was located 1828-65. Among the students were Anna Maria, daughter of John C. Calhoun; Ann Pamela Cuningham, founder of Mt. Vernon Ladies' Association; Martha Bulloch, mother of President Theodore Roosevelt.

Founded 1828 by Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina and Georgia. Located here 1831. Moved to Decatur, Georgia 1925. Woodrow Wilson's father and uncle were among faculty members. Central building, erected 1823, was designed by Robert Mills as home for Ainsley Hall (1783-1823), Columbia merchant.

On December 20, 1832, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, and authorized assets up to $200,000.

This Seminary was established in 1828 in Lexington, GA by several Presbyterian ministers. The Seminary was moved to Columbia, SC in 1831, where it officially became known as the Columbia Theological Seminary in 1925. The Seminary remained in Columbia, SC until 1927, when it was moved again, this time to Decatur, a suburb of Atlanta, GA.

On December 19, 1833, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to vest certain lots and woodlands currently owned by the State in the city of Columbia in the South Carolina College.
On December 20, 1842, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the establishment of the Military School at the Arsenal in Columbia with an appropriation of $8,000 annually for said school. On December 19, 1843, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which added the Governor to the Board of Visitors for the Military Schools.
On December 19, 1848, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the incorporation of the Palmetto Society in Columbia for the Dissemination of Learning (Section IV).
On December 20, 1853, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to add two more ex officio trustees, to be appointed by the legislature, for the South Carolina College.
On December 21, 1854, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to incorporate the Columbia Female College and named twenty-six (26) trustees for said college.

This land was purchased in 1854 by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church as the site of Columbia Female College, Chartered by S. C. General Assembly Dec. 21, 1854. Classes were held from 1859 to 1865. The college survived the burning of Columbia and was reopened in 1873. In 1905, the school was moved to its present site as the Columbia College.

[Note - this marker is on Hampton Street between Pickens Street and Henderson Street in Columbia, SC.]

On December 21, 1854, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to renew the charter of the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia for an additional twenty-one (21) years and increased assets authorized from $200,000 to $300,000.
Also on December 21, 1854, the South Carolina General Assembly passed another Act, which included the renewal of the charter for the Clarisophic Society for an additional fourteen (14) years (Section V).
On December 22, 1859, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which included the authorization for the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia to increase its assets to $500,000 (Section VI).
On January 28, 1861, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to re-identify the two separate military academies, now known as the "Arsenal Academy," and the "Citadel Academy," respectively, shall retain the same distinctive titles, but they shall together constitute and be entitled "The South Carolina Military Academy."
On December 21, 1861, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to authorize the Board of Trustees of the South Carolina College to elect officers at the semi-annual, as well as the annual, meeting of the Board.
On December 19, 1865, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to convert the South Carolina College into the University of South Carolina, and established eight (8) distinct schools: 1) School of Ancient Languages and Literature; 2) School of Modern Languages and Literature; 3) School of History, Political Philosophy, and Economy; 4) School of Rhetoric, Criticism, Elocution and English Language and Literature; 5) School of Mental and Moral Philosophy, Sacred Literature and Evidences of Christianity; 6) School of Mathematics, Civil and Military Engineering and Construction; 7) School of Natural and Mechanical Philosophy and Astronomy; and, 8) School of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Mineralogy and Geology.
On December 20, 1866, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish two (2) new schools within the University of South Carolina: 1) School of Law, with one professor; and, 2) School of Medicine, with two professors.
On March 3, 1869, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act acknowledging seven (7) trustees for the University of South Carolina to be elected by the state legislature. The Act also identifed the cost of tuition and other fees, pay for professors, and for the university to accept one student from each county at no cost to said student, upon qualification.

On this site stood Howard School, a public school for blacks established after the Civil War. By 1869 there was a two-story frame building large enough for 800 pupils. Partially funded by the Freedmen's Bureau, the school reportedly was named for Oliver O. Howard, first commissioner, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. For years the only public school for blacks in Columbia, Howard was moved 5 blocks NW, 1924.

[Note - this marker is on Hampton Street near Lincoln Street in Columbia, SC.] [Also, see 1924 marker below.]

Benedict College, founded in 1870 by the American Baptist Home Mission Society to educate freedmen and their descendants, was originally called Benedict Institute. It was named for Stephen and Bathsheba Benedict of Rhode Island, whose bequest created the school. Mrs. Benedict donated money to buy land in Columbia for it. The institute was chartered as Benedict College in 1894. Its early presidents were all white Baptist ministers from the North.

By the time Dr. J.J. Starks became Benedict College’s first black president in 1930, its curriculum included primary and secondary courses, college ~ level liberal arts courses, and courses in theology, nursing, and teaching. This curriculum was streamlined in the 1930s to emphasize the liberal arts and theology. Benedict College was also a significant center for civil rights activities in Columbia from the 1930s through the 1960s.

On March 6, 1871, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to appropriate $47,000 for the State Lunatic Asylum, mostly to finish construction on a new wing, but also to provide for new furniture and new chimneys to heat the old wing.
On March 13, 1872, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to require the State Penitentiary, constructed in 1866 in Columbia, to organize a school in the Penitentiary for the benefit of such convicts confined therein as may reasonably be expected to derive advantages therefrom. On March 1, 1878, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to repeal the Act of 1872, thereby abolishing the school at the Penitentiary.
Also on March 13, 1872, the South Carolina General Assembly passed another Act to incorporate the American Union Literary Club, of Gadsden, Richland County, South Carolina, named twelve (12) associates, and authorized assets up to $10,000.
On February 26, 1873, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish the South Carolina State Normal School, as required by the new Constitution of 1868 to be accomplished within five (5) years, in the town of Columbia, for the training and education of teachers. This school was to be within the property of the University of South Carolina, and the legislature authorized $15,000 annually for maintenance and support of said school.
On November 25, 1873, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish a House of Refuge and Industrial School in Columbia and in Charleston for the care, correction, education and instruction of juvenile offenders of the law and peace of the city. This Act specified that these institutions were to be funded with local money and not via the State legislature.
On February 23, 1875, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to re-charter the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia for an additional twenty-one (21) years, and authorized assets up to $300,000.
On March 9, 1875, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution directing the Trustees of the State Orphan Asylum in Charleston to move the institution from Charleston to Columbia. From all available evidence, this never happened, and the orphanage remained in Charleston.
On March 25, 1875, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to move the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum from Spartanburg County to the city of Columbia in Richland County. From all evidence available, this did not happen, and the asylum remained in Cedar Springs.
On June 7, 1877, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to reorganize the University of South Carolina and the State Normal School. This Act authorized the Governor to appoint a commission to recommend ways of saving money while providing an education for both white and colored students. This commission was to provide their recommendations at the next legislative session.
On March 22, 1878, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to divide the University of South Carolina into two branches - the South Carolina College to exist in the city of Columbia, and Claflin College to exist in or near the town of Orangeburg. Each college to allow one student from each county to attend free of charge.
Also on March 22, 1878, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to provide back-pay to faculty and others of the University of South Carolina a total of $6,161.28 for the period ending June 15, 1877. On the same date, the General Assembly passed another Act to provide back-pay to faculty and others of the State Normal College a total of $577 for the period ending May 31, 1877.
On December 23, 1879, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act, which repealed part of an earlier Act prohibiting the sale of spirituous liquors within one mile of a school house or college - this Act repealed the prohibition in Georgetown County and in Richland County.
On December 24, 1880, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish a new special school district in the city of Columbia in Richland County, and authorized the voters to decide upon an additional special school tax up to two (2) mills on real and personal property. On December 22, 1883, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act which amended the Act of 12/24/1880 by adding two more School Commissioners to be appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the Board of Trustees of the Columbia Male and Female Academies. On December 23, 1893, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to amend the Act of 12/24/1880, by replacing the Clerk with a Secretary, and by adding two new sections, 6 and 7, clarifying the role of the County Treasurer pertaining to school district funds.
Also on December 24, 1880, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to incorporate the Allen University of the African Methodist Episcopal Church of South Carolina in Columbia, named eleven (11) trustees, and authorized assets up to $100,000.

Allen University, chartered in 1880, was founded by the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church. It had its origin in Payne Institute, founded in 1870 in Cokesbury, in Greenwood County. In 1880 the S.C. Conference of the A.M.E. Church voted to move Payne Institute to Columbia. It opened in Columbia in 1881 and was renamed in honor of Bishop Richard Allen (1760-1831), founder of the A.M.E. Church. The first university building on this site was in use by 1888.

Allen University, founded to educate ministers for the A.M.E. Church, also had primary and secondary courses, and college-level liberal-arts courses. It also offered courses in the arts and had one of the few black law schools in the South before 1900. Its primary and secondary programs ended in the 1920s and 1930s. Allen was also a significant center for civil rights activities in Columbia from the 1930s through the 1960s.

[Note - the Payne Institute existed only in Abbeville County. If it had continued, it would have been in Greenwood County.]

On February 4, 1882, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to exempt from taxation the property of the Benedict Institute in the suburbs of Columbia in Richland County.
On December 21, 1883, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to recharter the Palmetto Society in Columbia for the Dissemination of Learning for an additional twenty-one (21) years
On December 24, 1885, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to authorize the Trustees of the University of South Carolina to sell a vacant lot belonging to the University, and to sell the materials composing the building known as the “College Chapel” in Sumter Street. The proceeds are to be used for improvements to the University.

In 1886, chiefly through the efforts of D. B. Johnson, first superintendent of Columbia public schools, Winthrop Training School, later Winthrop College, was started here in a small brick building which had been the chapel of Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1936 this building was moved to the campus of Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C.

[Note - the SC General Assembly did not authorize this school until December 23, 1891 - see below.]

On December 24, 1886, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to repeal Section 1040 and Amend Section 1042, Chapter XX, of the General Statutes. In this Act, they increased the payable tuition to the University of South Carolina to $40 per annum.
On December 22, 1887, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to amend Chapter XX of the General Statutes pertaining to the University of South Carolina, by adding the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, adding the Experimental Farms and Stations, and other miscellaneous changes.
On December 23, 1887, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to authorize each county to send one student, free of charge, to the Winthrop Training School for Teachers in Columbia, provided that each graduate must teach for one year in the free public schools in their county.
On December 24, 1887, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to define the Board of Trustees and to authorize assets up to $100,000 for the Winthrop Training School for Teachers in Columbia.
On December 23, 1890, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to reorganize the University of South Carolina into three branches: the South Carolina College in Columbia and Claflin College in Orangeburg - both under one Board of Trustees, and the South Carolina Military Academy (the Citadel) in Charleston under a Board of Visitors. The Experimental Station and the Mechanical Department connected with the University of South Carolina are to be transferred to the Clemson Agricultural College as of July 1, 1891.
On December 24, 1890, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to authorize the sale of a certain building in the City of Columbia, with the lot on which it stands, known as Agricultural Hall; that four-acre lot in said city known as the Fish Pond tract or lot; that tract of land known as the Experimental Farm at Columbia, with the personal property belonging thereto; that certain farm and tract of land, containing two hundred and twenty-seven 21-100 acres, in the County of Darlington, known as the South Carolina Agricultural Farm and Station in Darlington County, together with the personal property thereon and appertaining thereto; and that certain tract of land in Spartanburg County, near the City of Spartanburg, containing 14 4-100 acres, more or less, with the buildings and with the personal property thereunto belonging, known as that part of the South Carolina Agricultural Farm and Station situated in Spartanburg County. That the proceeds of such sale or sales, whether in money or securities, shall be turned over to the State Treasurer, to be by him held subject to the draft or order, as the case may be, of the Trustees of the Clemson Agricultural College, for the use of the said Clemson Agricultural College, to which college the said proceeds are hereby appropriated, except for the Darlington County Farm and Station and property - the funds shall be distributed to Darlington County and Florence County for general county use. On December 24, 1892, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to amend the 12/24/1890 Act, by repealing the sale of the Agricultural Hall in the city of Columbia, if not already sold - Clemson now has sufficient funds to complete its construction.
On December 5, 1891, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to amend Section 1584 of the General Statutes by clarifyng the five (5) Regents of the State Lunatic Asylum in Columbia, their appointment, and their term of office to be six (6) years.
On December 23, 1891, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish a new institution for the practical training and higher education of white girls, as a branch of the State University, to be known as "The South Carolina Industrial and Winthrop Normal College," and for towns and counties to provide a proposal of why this new college should be built in their location. This new college was to begin in Columbia, SC. It later moved to Rock Hill in York County.
On December 24, 1891, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to authorize the faculty of the University of South Carolina to place the students in the Law Department of the University for the present year on the same footing as to beneficiary scholarships and exemption from tuition fees as the other students.
On December 20, 1893, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to authorize the Comptroller-General to draw his warrant on the State Treasurer for the sum of $2,000 in favor of the Trustees of the South Carolina Industrial and Winthrop Normal College to pay for services of expert teachers, additional expert teacher and a piano, which were appropriated by the Bill passed at the last session of the General Assembly.
On December 23, 1893, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to change the name of the South Carolina Industrial and Winthrop Normal College to the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina for the education of white girls, to redefine the election of trustees, to require the new Board of Trustees elected to select the final location for said college, and for the State Penitentiary to provide up to one hundred (100) convicts to construct the buildings at the new location.
On January 4, 1894, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to require the Secretary of State to transfer to the Board of Trustees of the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina all remnants of marble and tiling left over from work on the State House. Since this material is no longer needed to complete said State House, it can be used in the construction of the new college.
Also on January 4, 1894, the South Carolina General Assembly passed another Joint Resolution for the State Penitentiary to provide fifty (50) convicts to support construction at Clemson Agricultural College, to provide fifty (50) convicts to construct a new colored male facility at the State Insane Asylum, and to provide one hundred (100) convicts to support the construction of the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina.
On December 17, 1894, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act for the State Penitentiary to provide thirty-three (33) convicts to the Clemson Agricultural College to help finalize the buildings at the college, and to provide thirty-five (35) convicts to the State Lunatic Asylum in Columbia to make bricks to finalize the new building.
On December 21, 1894, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to appoint ex-governor Benjamin R. Tillman as an additional Trustee of the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina.
On December 27, 1894, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish a Historical Commission for the State of South Carolina to procure such documents or transcripts of documents and such other material relating to the history of South Carolina as they may deem necessary or important, to superintend the arrangement and preservation of the same, and to make suitable regulations for their inspection and examination in order to protect them from injury. This is the beginning of what is now the South Carolina Department of Archives and History in Columbia, SC
On February 11, 1896, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to rename the State Lunatic Asylum to the State Hospital for the Insane.
On February 28, 1896, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to incorporate the Epworth Orphanage of the South Carolina Conference in Columbia, named fifteen (15) managers/trustees, and authorized assets up to $500,000. The orphanage was created for the purpose of supporting and educating orphans and destitute children of Methodist parents, and of such other destitute and helpless children as they deem appropriate.
On March 2, 1896, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to regulate the purchase of books for the State Library in Columbia, SC
On March 9, 1896, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to extend the charter of the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia in Columbia, SC for an additional fifty (50) years. The Act also changed the name to the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Florida of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.
Also on March 9, 1896, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution to authorize the Regents of the State Hospital for the Insane to purchase the Wallace property, containing one hundred and eight (108) acres, more or less, with the buildings thereon, provided the price to be paid for said property does not exceed twenty-seven thousand five hundred dollars ($27,500).
On March 5, 1897, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act for the State Penitentiary to provide fifteen (15) convicts to the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College at Rock Hill in York County, and to provide twenty (20) convicts to the State Hospital for the Insane to finalize construction at these facilities.
On February 21, 1898, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to establish the position of State Librarian, to define the Board of Trustees for the State Library, and to appropriate funding for said Library in the city of Columbia, SC. On February 9, 1900, the South Carolina General Assembly passed and Act to amend the 2/21/1898 Act, by raising the salary of the State Librarian from $600 to $800 per year.

Blossom Street School, at the corner of what was then Blossom & Gates (now Park) Streets, was built in 1898 as the first public school in Columbia south of Senate Street. A frame building, it was originally a school for white children. After it burned in 1915, a brick school was built here the next year. Blossom Street became a school for black children in Ward One in 1929 and was renamed Celia Dial Saxon School in 1930.

Blossom Street School was renamed to honor Celia Dial Saxon (1857-1935). Saxon was educated at the Normal School at the University of S.C. 1875-77, during Reconstruction. She taught in Columbia schools for 57 years and was a founder of the Wilkinson Orphanage, Wheatley YWCA, and Fairwold Industrial School. Saxon School closed in 1968 and was demolished in 1974 as a result of campus expansion by the University of S.C.

On March 2, 1899, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to fix the number and to regulate the terms of office of the Boards of Trustees for the South Carolina College in Columbia, the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina in Rock Hill, and the Board of Visitors for the South Carolina Military Academy (aka The Citadel) in Charleston, and to limit the compensation thereof.
On March 6, 1899, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a Joint Resolution for the State Penitentiary to provide convicts to the State Hospital for the Insane to complete construction at said hospital. Number and duration to be determined.
On May 24, 1899, the Richland County Clerk of Court recorded the charter for the Columbia Business College in the city of Columbia, named the President and the Secretary, and identified $5,000 in capital stock.
On February 19, 1900, the South Carolina General Assembly passed an Act to change the titles of the Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina, and the Librarian in charge of the Library of the South Carolina College, heretofore denominated the Librarian of the University of South Carolina, and the Treasurer heretofore denominated as the Treasurer of the South Carolina University, shall be respectively designated, denominated and known as "Board of Trustees of the South Carolina College," and "Librarian of the South Carolina College," and "Treasurer of the South Carolina College."

This African-American school, built nearby before 1900, was originally New Hope School, a white school affiliated with Union Church. It closed about 1914. In 1921 Rachel Hull Monteith (d. 1958) opened Nelson School as a black public school in the Hyatt Park School District. With about 100 students in grades 1-5, it later became a 3-teacher school with Monteith as its principal and added grades 6 and 7.

Nelson School was renamed Monteith School in 1932 to honor Rachel Monteith. A civil rights activist, she was the mother of prominent civil rights activist Modjeska Monteith Simkins (1899-1992). By 1936 her daughter Rebecca (1911-1967) also taught here; she became principal when her mother retired in 1942. The Hyatt Park School District was annexed into the city in 1947, and the school closed in 1949. Moved here in 2003, it now serves as a community center.

 
 
 
 
 

Described as "Collegiate Italian Renaissance" in style, this school was designed by J. Carroll Johnson, of Urquhart and Johnson, in Columbia. The cornerstone was laid in 1915 with Gov. Richard I. Manning as a featured speaker. Final classes were held here in December 1975, when Columbia High moved into a new building. Thus came the end of an institution of education and culture that meant so much to so many.

[Note - marker is on Washington Street west of Marion Street in Columbia, SC.]

40-164 - BOOKER T. WASHINGTON SCHOOL / BOOKER T. WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

The two-story main building at Booker T. Washington School, built in 1916, stood here until 1975. At first an elementary school with grades 1-10, it became Booker T. Washington High School with grades 9-10 in 1918, added grade 11 in 1924, and added grade 12 in 1947. Columbia’s only black high school from 1917 to 1948 and for many years the largest black high school in the state, it closed in 1974.

Booker T. Washington High, one of the first black high schools accredited by the S.C. Dept. of Education, was also one of the most significant institutions in Columbia’s black community for more than fifty years. Notable principals included C.A. Johnson, 1916-1931; J. Andrew Simmons, 1932-1945; and Harry B. Rutherford, 1950-1965. The University of S.C. bought the property in 1974 and demolished the main building in 1975.

Julius Rosenwald, Chicago philanthropist and president of Sears, Roebuck & Co., (1910-1925), helped fund this black school, built 1918. The original two-room structure was named in Rosenwald's honor and the school's curriculum eventually included grades 1-12. It was renamed Richlex in the 1950s, but closed in 1968; Robert Lee Floyd served as principal during this time.

Columbia Bible School classes began in 1923 in the towered building which once stood on this site (originally as Columbia Female College, later as the Colonia Hotel). Under the leadership of its first president, Robert C. McQuilkin, the school grew into Columbia Bible College and, in 1960, moved to its present campus NW of Columbia. Its alumni now serve in church-related ministries around the world.

[Note - this marker is on Hampton Street between Pickens Street and Henderson Street in Columbia, SC.]

This school, built in 1923 at a cost of $2,500, is one of 500 African-American schools in S.C. funded in part by the Julius Rosenwald Foundation from 1917 to 1932. It is a two-room school typical of smaller Rosenwald schools. From 1923 to 1950 an average of 40-50 students a year attended this school, in grades 1-7.

This school closed after the 1949-50 school year, when many districts were consolidated. It was sold to the Pine Grove Community Development Club in 1968, then to the Richland County Recreation Commission in 2002. Pine Grove Rosenwald School was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.

Established after the Civil War, this public school for blacks was located at the NW corner of Hampton & Lincoln streets by 1869 and was partially supported by the Freedmen's Bureau. It is said the school was named for Oliver O. Howard, commissioner of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands during Reconstruction. Moved here in 1924, Howard School was for many years the only public school for blacks in Columbia.

[Note - this marker is on Laurel Street near Williams Street in Columbia, SC.] [Also, see 1869 marker above.]

This one-room primary school, built about 1925, stood about 1 mi. E, at the intersection of Killian and Longtown Roads, until 2001. There was a school at Killian (also called Killian’s) as early as 1905. From 1913 to 1948 Killian School had two teachers and an enrollment of 30 to 80 students in grades 1-7, with an average attendance of 30 to 40 and an eight- to nine-month school year.

Killian School closed in 1948, and its students and one teacher went to Blythewood Grammar School. In 1954 Richland County sold the school to the citizens of Killian for $100.00 as a community center. The Killian School was deeded to Richland County School District Two in 2000 and moved here in 2001 to be renovated as a museum of 20th century rural education and a conference center.

In 1937 Columbia Bible College (now Columbia International University) acquired the Ainsley Hall House, designed by Robert Mills. The students housed here were trained for Christian service around the world. In 1960 CBC moved to its present campus in north Columbia. The Robert Mills House has been operated as a house museum since 1967 by the Historic Columbia Foundation.

The Westervelt Home, for children of Christian missionaries, was founded in Indiana in 1926 and moved to Columbia in 1929. Associated with Columbia Bible College, it was in the Hampton-Preston Mansion 1930-34 and the Robert Mills House 1934-37, then moved to Batesburg in 1937. The Hampton-Preston Mansion has been a house museum since 1970 and operated by Historic Columbia Foundation since 1972.

Fort Jackson Elementary School was one of the first public schools in S.C. to desegregate when classes began on September 3, 1963. The first school on post and one of the first permanent buildings at Fort Jackson, it was built in only three months. A new federal policy required all schools on military bases to admit African-American students instead of sending them to separate schools off-base.

This school opened under Principal Thomas Silvester with nine civilian teachers and 245 students in Grades 1-6. A newspaper article described it as “operated without regard to race, creed or color.” Fort Jackson Elementary School, later renamed Hood Street Elementary School after additional schools opened on post, has served the families of Fort Jackson servicemen and servicewomen for more than 45 years.

 
 
 
 
 


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