The American Revolution in South Carolina

The Siege of Charleston

March 28 - May 12, 1780


Patriot Cdr:

Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln
British Cdr:

Maj. Gen. Henry Clinton
Killed:

89
Killed:

99
Wounded:

138
Wounded:

217
Captured:

3,371
Captured:

~7
Old District: 

Charles Town District
Present County:

Charleston County

The British launched its Southern strategy by beginning a siege of Charleston, South Carolina. The siege lasted until May 9th when British artillery fire was close enough to set the town on fire and force a surrender. A perception continued among the British that the South was full of Loyalists just awaiting the call from the British.

At the end of December 1779, Major General Henry Clinton succumbed to this view and headed south with a small army. His goal was to capture Charleston, South Carolina - now that Savannah had been successfully taken by the British. Clinton approached steadily, arriving opposite Charleston on April 1. He then began a classic European siege. The British dug siege trenches ever closer to the wall of the city. Day by day, week by week, the British got ever closer to the wall of the city.

In the meantime, both sides exchanged artillery fire, the Americans trying to make the British task as difficult as possible, while the British hoped to terrify the Americans into submission. By the beginning of May, the British had advanced within a few feet of the American lines. Their artillery fire was soon becoming deadly and on May 9th many of the wooden houses in Charleston were set on fire by the artillery fire.

The city elders had enough and requested that the American commander General Benjamin Lincoln surrender, which he did. The British victory in Charleston was pyrrhic. There was no popular uprising and instead South Carolina degenerated into a period of chaos with guerilla-style combat in the outlying areas. 

The British captured more than 5,500 Patriots and themselves lost about 250 killed and wounded. Carelessness caused a massive explosion of 180 barrels of captured powder and somewhat marred the victory. Neither Clinton nor the American commander, General Benjamin Lincoln, displayed any inspiring leadership. When Clinton learned of an impending French expedition, he determined that he should be in New York, and General Charles Cornwallis assumed command of British forces in the South. Lincoln was sent to Philadelphia on parole.


On April 2nd, siege works were begun about 800 yards from the American fortifications. During the first few days of the siege, the British operations were under heavy artillery fire. On April 4th, they built redoubts near the Ashley and Cooper Rivers to protect their flanks. On April 6th, a warship was hauled overland from the Ashley River to the Cooper River to harass crossings by the besieged to the mainland. On April 8th, the British fleet moved into the Harbor under fire only from Fort Moultrie.

On April 12th, Gen. Henry Clinton ordered Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton and Major Patrick Ferguson to capture Monck's Corner, which was a crossroads just south of Biggins Bridge near the Santee River. SC Brig. Gen. Isaac Huger was stationed there with 500 men under orders from Gen. Lincoln to hold the crossroads so that communications with Charleston would remain open. On the evening of April 13, 1780, Lt. Col. Tarleton gave orders for a silent march. Later that night, they intercepted a messenger with a letter from Brig. Gen. Huger to Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln and thus learned how the rebels were deployed. At three o'clock in the morning on the 14th, the British reached the American post, catching them completely by surprise and quickly routing them. Following the skirmish, the British fanned out across the countryside and effectively cut off Charleston from outside support.

South Carolina Governor John Rutledge left Charleston on April 13th. On the 21st, a parlay was made between Lincoln and Clinton, with Lincoln offering to surrender with honor. That is, with colors flying and marching out fully armed, but Clinton was sure of his position and quickly refused the terms. A heavy artillery exchange followed. On April 23rd, Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis crossed the Cooper River and assumed command of the British forces blocking escape by land. Finally on April 24th, the Americans ventured out to harass the siege works. The lone American casualty was Tom Moultrie, brother of Brig. Gen. William Moultrie. On April 29th, the British advanced on the left end of the canal that fronted the city's fortifications with the purpose of destorying the dam and draining the canal.

The Americans knew the importance of that canal to the city's defenses and responded with steady and fierce artillery and small arms fire. By the following night, the British had succeeded in draining some water. By May 4th, several casualties had been sustained and the fire had been so heavy that work was often suspended. On the 5th, the Americans made a countermove from their side, but by the 6th, almost all of the water had drained out of the heavily damaged dam and plans for an assault began.

On that same day, May 6th, Fort Moultrie surrendered. On May 8th, Gen. Clinton called for unconditional surrender from Gen. Lincoln, but Lincoln again tried to negotiate for honors of war. On May 11th, the British fired red-hot shot that burned several homes before Lincoln finally called for parlay and to negotiate terms for surrender. The final terms dictated that the entire Continental force captured were prisoners of war. On May 12th, the actual surrender took place with Gen. Lincoln leading a ragged bunch of soldiers out of the city.

When word reached the backcountry, Col. Andrew Williamson and Maj. Andrew Pickens at Ninety-Six and Joseph Kershaw at Camden.

The British also captured 311 artillery pieces, 9,178 artillery rounds, 5,916 muskets, 33,000 rounds of small arms ammunition, 212 hand grenades, 15 Regimental Colors, 49 ships, and 120 boats, plus 376 barrels of flour and large magazines of rum, rice, and indigo.

The captured Patriot muskets were brought to the powder magazine inside the city. A Hessian officer warned that some of the muskets may be loaded, but he was ignored. One went off and 180 barrels of powder exploded. Almost immediately, an estimated 5,000 muskets in the magazine discharded simultaneously. About 200 people were killed and six houses were destroyed, including a poorhouse and a brothel. Thirty British soldiers, including Capt. Collins and Lt. Gorder of the Royal Artillery and Lt. Alexander McLeod of the 42nd Regiment were killed in the blast. A Hessian artillery officer was also killed.

The senior officers including Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln were eventually exchanged for British officers in American hands. For all others in the Continental army, a long stay on prison boats in Charleston Harbor was the result, where sickness and disease would ravage them. The defeat left no Continental Army in the South and the country wide open for British taking. Even before Lincoln surrendered, the Continental Congress had already appointed Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates to replace him.

The British quickly established outposts in a semicircle from Georgetown to Augusta, Georgia, with positions at Camden, Ninety-Six, Cheraw, Rocky Mount, and Hanging Rock in between. Parole was offered to backcountry Patriots and many accepted, including Col. Andrew Pickens. Soon after securing Charleston, Gen. Henry Clinton gave command of the Southern Theatre to Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis and on June 5th, he sailed north back to New York.

Gen. Clinton's one order to Gen. Cornwallis before he left, was to maintain possession of Charleston above all else. Cornwallis was not to move into North Carolina if it jeopordized this holding. Clinton also had ordered that all militia and civilians be released from their parole. But in addition, they must take an oath to the Crown and be at ready to serve when called upon by His Majesty's government. This addition angered many of the locals and led to many deserting or ignoring the order and terms of their parole.

Charleston was now "pacified" by the British. It would be over one year before any Patriots would venture into what is now Charleston County to irritate the British forces that had complete control of the town and surrounding area. With such a presence in and around the Charleston area, the armed conflict remained elsewhere, and the locals remained quite passive under British rule, which was not all that onerous. With its great port facilities, the British could readily resupply its commanders in the field from Charleston - but, the outlying sections of the State were quickly becoming not all that friendly to the wagon trains heading out of town.

Over the next year and a half, the Patriots turned the tide and brought the fight back to the British in Charleston. With the tide turning all over the thirteen colonies, the British finally realized that the colonies were lost, and even the fighting in and around Charleston subsided. As expected, Charleston was the last location to be surrendered in South Carolina and the British left quietly on December 14, 1782. The surviving Patriots entered right behind them, and began building a new nation.

Known Patriot Participants

Known British Participants

Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln - Commander

SC Continental Brigade led by Brig. Gen. William Moultrie, Lt. Col. William Massey - Deputy QM General. Maj. Andrew Dellient, Capt. Richard Beresford (Aide-de-Camp)

SC 1st Regiment led by Col. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Lt. Col. William Scott, Maj. Edmund Massinbird Hyrne, Maj. William Jackson, Maj. Thomas Pinckney, with 231 men in the following twelve (12) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Levaliet de Sainte-Marie
- Capt. Joseph Elliott, with 23 men
- Capt. Thomas Gadsden
- Capt. William Hixt
- Capt. Charles Lining, with 25 men
- Capt. Richard Pollard, with 9 men
- Capt. Charles Skirving
- Capt. Simeon Theus, with 18 men
- Capt. George Turner, with 18 men
- Capt. Isaac Weatherly
- Capt. John Williams
- Capt. John Williamson

Pulaski's Legion of Infantry led by Maj. Chevalier Pierre-Francois Vernier with the following four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James de Segon
- Capt. Frederick Paschke
- Capt. Monsieur O'Neil
- Capt. Joseph Baldesqui

SC 2nd Regiment led by Col. Isaac Motte, Lt. Col. Francis Marion, Maj. Isaac Child Harleston, Maj. John Vanderhorst with 266 men in the following fourteen (14) known companies, led by:
- Sgt. Maj. Alexander McDonald (Colonel's Company), with 29 men
- Capt. Jesse Baker
- Capt. Thomas Dunbar
- Capt. Henry Gray
- Capt. Thomas Hall
- Capt. John Martin
- Capt. Richard Mason, with 23 men
- Capt. Archibald McDaniel
- Capt. Thomas Moultrie, with 22 men
- Capt. William Moultrie, Jr.
- Capt. John Postell
- Capt. Albert Roux, with 22 men
- Capt. Thomas Shubrick, with 21 men
- Capt. George Warley, with 26 men

SC 3rd Regiment of Rangers led by Lt. Col. William Henderson, Lt. Col. William Cattell, with 302 men in the following eighteen (18) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Jefferson Baker
- Capt. Jesse Baker, with 15 men
- Capt. John Buchanan, with 17 men
- Capt. William Caldwell
- Capt. John Donaldson
- Capt. Field Farrar, with 15 men
- Capt. Thomas Farrow
- Capt. Uriah Goodwin, with 19 men
- Capt. William Goodwyn
- Capt. David Hopkins
- Capt. George Liddell, with 17 men
- Capt. Robert Lyle
- Capt. Hugh Milling
- Capt. John Carraway Smith
- Capt. Oliver Towles
- Capt. Felix Warley, with 24 men
- Capt. Joseph Warley, with 16 men
- Capt. Richard Winn

NC Continental Brigade led by Brig. Gen. James Hogun with the following three (3) known regiments:

1st NC Regiment led by Col. Thomas Clark and Maj. John Nelson with 260 men in the following eleven (11) known companies:
- Colonel's Company - Capt.-Lt. James King with 50 men
- Lt. Colonel's Company - Capt.-Lt. Thomas Callender, with 35 men
- Major's Company - Maj. John Nelson, with 44 men
- Capt. Joshua Bowman (killed), with 64 men
- Capt. Tilghman Dixon, with 44 men
- Capt. Griffith John McRee, with 46 men
- Capt. Joseph Montford
- Capt. James Read, with 46 men
- Capt. John Sumner, with 40 men
- Capt. Howell Tatum, with 45 men

2nd NC Regiment led by Col. John Patten, and Lt. Colonel Selby Harney, with 244 men in the following eight (8) known companies:
- Colonel's Company - Capt. John Craddock
- Lt. Colonel's Company - Capt.-Lt. Charles Stewart, with 27 men
- Major's Company - Lt. John Daves, with 26 men
- Capt. Thomas Armstrong, with 22 men
- Capt. Benjamin Andrew Coleman, with 29 men
- Capt. Robert Fenner, with 22 men
- Capt. John Ingles with 28 men
- Lt. Jesse Read (Capt. Clement Hall's Company), with 27 men

3rd NC Regiment led by Lt. Col. Robert Mebane and Maj. Thomas Hogg, with the following five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Kedar Ballard, with 25 men
- Capt. George "Gee" Bradley, with 35 men
- Capt. Francis Child
- Capt.-Lt. William Fawn with 34 men
- Capt. Philip Taylor

SC Corps of Light Infantry led by Lt. Col. John Laurens, Maj. William Hazzard Wigg, Maj. Hardy Murfee, with 175 men and the following one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Joseph Montford

2nd VA Brigade led by Col. Richard Parker in the following detachments:

1st VA Detachment led by Lt. Col. Samuel Hopkins with 258 men in the following four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Alexander Parker, with 72 men
- Capt. Benjamin Taliaferro, with 69 men
- Capt. Tarleton Payne, with 68 men
- Capt. Beverly Stubblefield, with 48 men

2nd VA Detachment led by Col. William Heth and Lt. Col. Gustavus Wallace with 323 men in the following four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Buckner, with 84 men
- Capt. Lawrence Butler, with 77 men
- Capt. Thomas Holt, with 76 men
- Capt Robert Beale, with 83 men

Detachment of the 1st and 3rd Continental Dragoons led by Capt. Robert Yancey with 31 men

Armand's Legion of Horse and Foot led by "Unknown Captain" with 4 men

GA Regiment of Horse Rangers led by Col. Leonard Marbury with 41 men

GA Continental Officers led by Col. John White with 6 officers

NC Light Infantry led by Lt. Col. Archibald Lytle with 202 men in the following seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Carrington (Orange) (POW)
- Capt. Alexander Harvey (Edgecombe) (POW)
- Capt. James Johnson (Bladen) (POW)
- Capt. George Lemmon (Guilford) (POW)
- Capt. Lipham (Orange) (POW)
- Capt. John George Lowman (Anson) (POW)
- Capt. Barnet Pulliam (Granville) (POW)

NC Light Dragoons led by Col. Marquis Francois DeMalmedy - Marquis of Bretagne, Maj. Cosmo Medici, Maj. Thomas Harris, and the following four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Samuel Ashe (POW)
- Capt. Robert Council (POW)
- Capt. William Gill (POW)
- Capt. James Osborn (POW)

Brigade of Artillery led by Col. Barnard Beeckman with 391 guns in the following breakdown:

SC 4th Regiment (Artillery) led by Lt. Col. John Faucheraud Grimke with 93 men in the following batteries:

Number 1 Battery - Capt. James Wilson with 10 guns

Number 2 Battery - Capt. Harman Davis with 6 guns

Number 3 Battery - Capt. John Francis DeTreville with 3 guns, along with a detachment of the SC 2nd Regiment consisting of three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Richard Bohun Baker, with 30 men
- Capt. Daniel Mazyck, with 26 men
- Capt. Adrian Proveaux, with 20 men

Number 4 Battery - Capt. Barnard Elliott with 2 guns along with a detachment of the SC 2nd Regiment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Peter Gray, with 22 men

Number 5 Battery - Capt. John Wickly with 6 guns

Number 6 Battery - Capt. Richard Brooke Roberts with 4 guns

Number 7 Battery - Capt. Andrew Templeton with 4 guns

Number 8 Battery, Number 9 Battery, Number 15 Battery - Maj. Ephraim Mitchell with 8 guns

Number 10, 11, 12 13, 14 Batteries led by Maj. Thomas Grimball

Capt.-Lt. John Shivers Budd - location unknown

Capt.-Lt. James Fields - location unknown

Capt.-Lt. John Francis Gorget - location unknown

Capt. James Mitchell - location unknown

Capt. William Mitchell - location unknown

Capt. James Wilson - location unknown

Charlestown Battalion of Artillery, Hornwork Battery - Capt. Thomas Heyward, Jr. with 26 men

Charlestown Battalion of Artillery, 2nd Independent SC Artillery Company - Capt. Edward Rutledge

Charlestown Battalion of Artillery, 6th Independent SC Artillery Company, Gibbes Wharf Battery - Capt.-Lt. William Hassell Gibbes with 7 guns and with Capt. Edmund Arrowsmith and Continental Marines

Charleston Bombardiers, Mortar Battery - Capt. Francis Troin

NC Artillery, Capt. John Kingsbury and Capt.-Lt. Philip Jones, with 64 men

VA State Artillery Regiment, Half Moon Battery - Col. Thomas Marshall with 100 men

Cambray's Battery - Lt. Col. Louis Jean Baptiste Cambray (Continental Army) with 2 guns

Continental Frigate Boston, Broughton's Battery - Capt. Samuel Tucker with 20 guns.

Continental Sloop Providence, Exchange Battery - "Unknown Captain" with 14 guns

Charles Town District Regiment detachment, James Island Company, Hornwork Battery - Capt. Benjamin Stiles with Lt. John Garden

Charles Town District Regiment detachment, Company of Cannoneers led by Maj. Joseph Darrell with 167 men in the following batteries:

Liberty Battery - "Unknown Captain" with 6 guns

Lauren's Wharf Battery - "Unknown Captain" with 10 guns

Craven's Governor Bridge Battery - "Unknown Captain" with 7 guns

Lyttleton's Battery - "Unknown Captain" with 12 guns

Continental Marines' Grenville Battery - Capt. Richard Palmes with 8 guns

American Engineer Corps led by Brig. Gen. Louis le Begue de Presle Duportail with 7 men and Col. Jean Baptiste Joseph de Laumoy, Lt. Col. Chevalier Luigi de Cambray-Digny, Maj. J. Ferdinand Debraham, Capt. Jacob Shriver, and 600 slaves used in digging earthworks

1st Brigade of SC Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Stephen Bull with the following units:

Beaufort District Regiment detachment led by Lt. Col. Robert Barnwell, Maj. John Barnwell, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Robert Barnwell
- Capt. Victor Daniel DeSaussure

Charles Town District Regiment led by Col. Maurice Simons, Lt. Col. John Harleston, Maj. Joseph Parker, with two battalions:

1st Battalion, led by Lt. Col. Agers, Lt. Col. Roger Moore Smith, Maj. John Baddeley, Maj. James Bentham, with 302 men in the following nine (9) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Peter Bocquet
- Capt. Archibald Brown
- Capt William Fraser
- Capt George A. Hall.
- Capt. Thomas Heyward, Sr.
- Capt. William Lee
- Capt. William Livingston
- Capt. John Raven Matthews
- Capt. John McQueen

2nd Battalion, led by Lt. Col. John Huger, Lt. Col. Abel Kolb, Maj. John Gilbank, Maj. Thomas Grimball, Jr., with 485 men in the following ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Francis Kinlock
- Capt. Richard Lushington
- Capt. William Mills
- Capt. Edward North (or Edward Worth)
- Capt. Jacob Read
- Capt. Archibald Scott
- Capt. Daniel Strobel
- Capt. Richard Todd
- Capt. Anthony Toomer
- Capt. Sims White - Artillery

Granville County Regiment (SC) detachment, led by Col. Benjamin Gardin, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Lewis Bona
- Capt. William Maynor

Colleton County Regiment (SC) detachment, led by Col. William Skirving, Lt. Col. Isaac Hayne, with one (1) known company. led by:
- Capt. Benjamin Matthews

Berkeley County Regiment (SC) detachment, led by Col. Thomas Skirving, Lt. Col. Hugh Horry, with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Gaillard
- Capt. Theodore Gaillard

2nd Brigade of SC Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Richard Richardson, Capt. Alexander Colcoclough, with the following units:

Camden District Regiment led by Lt. Col. Eli Kershaw, Lt. Col. Robert Goodwin, Lt. Col. James Postell, Lt. Col. Richard Singleton, Maj. Robert Crawford, with the following eight (8) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Cantey
- Capt. John Chesnut
- Capt. Hugh Coffee
- Capt. Henry Coffey
- Capt. John Cook
- Capt. John Robertson
- Capt. John Starks
- Capt. Willis Whitaker

Fairfield Regiment detachment of four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Charnock
- Capt. John Nixon
- Capt. John Pearson
- Capt. Anderson Thomas

1st Spartan Regiment detachment led by Col. John Thomas, Jr., with two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Ford
- Capt. Major Parson

2nd Spartan Regiment detachment of three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Daniel Duff
- Capt. William Grant
- Capt. Joseph Hughes

New Acquisition District Regiment detachment led by Col. Samuel Watson, with three (3) known companies. led by:
- Capt. Samuel Adams
- Capt. Hugh Bratton
- Capt. John McClure

3rd Brigade of SC Militia, led by Col. Andrew Pickens with the following units:

Upper Ninety-Six District Regiment detachment, led by Col. Andrew Pickens, Lt. Col. Robert McCreery, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Cowan
- Capt. John Irwin
- Capt. John Norwood

Lower Ninety-Six District Regiment detachment of four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. James Butler, Sr.
- Capt. John Carter
- Capt. James Moore
- Capt. William Smith

Lower District Regiment detachment led by Col. Robert Starke, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. John Walters

Little River District Regiment detachment led by Col. James Williams, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Benjamin Kilgore
- Capt. John Neilson
- Capt. John Rogers

Orangeburgh District Regiment detachment of one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. Aaron Little

4th Brigade of SC Militia, led by Brig. Gen. Alexander McIntosh, with the following units:

Cheraws District Regiment detachment of two (2) known companies, led by:
- Capt. George King
- Capt. Elisha Magee

Georgetown District Regiment detachment led by Col. Robert Herriott, Maj. Alexander Swinton, with one (1) known company, led by:
- Capt. James Gregg

Lower Craven County Regiment detachment led by Col. Hugh Giles, with three (3) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Francis Davis
- Capt. Joseph Graves (or Joseph Greaves)
- Capt. John Porter

Upper Craven County Regiment detachment led by Col. George Hicks, Maj. Tristram Thomas, with six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Thomas Cockran
- Capt. Thomas Ellerbee
- Capt. Edmund Irby
- Capt. Edward Ivey
- Capt. Maurice Murphy
- Capt. William Prestwood

Kingstree Regiment detachment led by Col. Archibald McDonald, with five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Benison
- Capt. John James
- Capt. Francis Lesesne
- Capt. James McCauley
- Capt. John McCauley

NC Brigade of Militia commanded by Col. Henry William Harrington and Lt. Col. John Donaldson with the following units:

NC 1st Regiment of Militia [name for convenience only] led by Col. John Hinton, Jr., Lt. Col. Thomas Wooten, Maj. Philip Love, and Maj. Jonathan Dunbibin, with the following nine (9) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Cray (Onslow County Regiment)
- Capt. Elias Fort (Duplin County Regiment)
- Capt. Joseph Grimes (Duplin County Regiment)
- Capt. Richard Hewett (Tyrrell County) (POW)
- Capt. Kenan Hubbard (Duplin County Regiment)
- Capt. Hugh Johnson (Tyrrell County) (POW)
- Capt. Samuel Porter (Bladen County) (POW)
- Capt. Joseph Wood (Bladen County Regiment)
- Capt. Samuel Wood (Bladen County Regiment)

NC 2nd Regiment of Militia [name for convenience only] led by Col. John Sheppard, Lt. Col. John Lowry, and Maj. James Shepherd, with the following nine (9) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Arent (Nash County Regiment)
- Capt. John Batts (Edgecombe County Regiment)
- Capt. Frederick Bell (Edgecombe County Reg)
- Capt. George Faulkner (Pitt County Regiment)
- Capt. Benjamin Kitchen (Nash County Regiment)
- Capt. Matthew McCullers (Johnston County Reg)
- Capt. James Pearce (Craven County Regiment)
- Capt. Richard Ransom (Franklin County Regiment)
- Capt. Jacob Turner (Halifax County Regiment)
(This regiment was stationed 8 miles north of Charleston and not captured at the surrender).

NC 3rd Regiment of Militia [name for convenience only] led by Col. Andrew Hampton, Lt. Col. Frederick Hambright, Lt. Col. Robert Lanier, and Maj. Ben Heannis, with the following eighteen (18) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Robert Alexander (Rutherford County Reg)
- Capt. Richard Allen (Wilkes County Regiment)
- Capt. John Brandon (Rowan County Regiment)
- Capt. Jacob Camplin (Surry County Regiment)
- Capt. Nathan Clifton (Montgomery) (POW)
- Capt. Jacob Collins (Mecklenburg) (POW)
- Capt. Joseph Collins (Lincoln County Regiment)
- Capt. John Cowper (Richmond) (POW)
- Capt. David Crawford (Rowan) (POW)
- Capt. James Crawford (Rowan) (POW)
- Capt. John Donaldson (Richmond) (POW)
- Capt. Enoch Enochs (Rowan) (POW)
- Capt. Gabriel Enochs (Rowan County Regiment)
- Capt. O. Gordon (Wilkes County Regiment)
- Capt. Samuel Martin (Lincoln County Regiment)
- Capt. Isaac Ralston (Guilford County Regiment)
- Capt. Simmerson (Mecklenburg) (POW)
- Capt. William Wilson (Rowan) (POW)

NC 4th Regiment of Militia [name for convenience only] led by Col. Hugh Tinnen, Lt. Col. Thornton Yancey, and Lt. Col. Stephen Moore, with the following seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Cage (Chatham) (POW)
- Capt. Nathaniel Christmas (Orange) (POW)
- Capt. Richard Christmas (Orange) (POW)
- Capt. William Harden (Caswell) (POW)
- Capt. Howell Lewis (Granville)
- Capt. Howell Rose (Granville) (POW)
- Capt. Adam Sanders (Caswell)

VA Militia led by "Unknown Commander" in the following units:

Amelia County (VA) Militia with four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Fitzgerald
- Capt. Jones
- Capt. Robert
- Capt. William Worsham

Capt. Louis-Antoine Magallon de le Morliere led a French Company with 43 men, and a Spanish Company with 42 men.

Continental Navy led by Commodore Abraham Whipple

Sloop Ranger with 20 guns - Capt. Thomas Simpson with Lt. William Morris and 35 Continental Marines

Frigate Queen of France with 28 guns - Capt. John Peck Rathbun with Capt. Edmund Arrowsmith and 50 Continental Marines

Sloop Providence with 32 guns - Capt. Hoysteed Hacker with Lt. Robert Davis and 16 Continental Marines.

Frigate Boston with 30 guns - Capt. Samuel Tucker with Capt. Richard Palmes and 50 Continental Marines

French Navy Ships:

Sloop L'Aventure with 26 guns - Capt. J. Courannat

Sloop Truite with 26 guns - Capt. James Pyne

Poleacre Zephyr with 18 guns - Lt. de Vaisseau

SC State Navy Ships:

Frigate Bricole with 44 guns - Capt. Thomas Curling and an unknown number of the Charles Town militia

Schooner General Moultrie with 20 guns - Capt. George Melvin

Brig Notre Dame with 16 guns - Capt. William Sisk

Galley Marquis de Britigney with 7 guns - Capt. Charles Crawley

Galley Lee with 4 guns - Capt. Marshall Boetis

Galley Revenge with 7 guns - Capt. George Farragut


Patriot Reinforcements that arrived on April 8, 1780:

1st VA Brigade, led by Brig. Gen. William Woodford, with the following three (3) known regiments:

VA 1st Regiment led by Col. William Russell and Lt. Col. Burgess Ball, with 336 men in nine (9) known companies, led by:
- Capt. William Bentley
- Capt. Mayo Carrington
- Capt. Thomas Hunt
- Capt. William Johnston
- Capt. Custis Kendall
- Capt. Callohill Minnis
- Capt. Holman Minnis
- Capt. William Moseley
- Capt. James Wright

VA 2nd Regiment led by Col. John Neville, Lt. Col. Nicholas Cabell, and Maj. David Stephenson, with 306 men in four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Blackwell
- Capt. James Curry
- Capt. LeRoy Edwards
- Capt. John Stith

VA 3rd Regiment led by Col. Nathaniel Gist with 252 men in six (6) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Joseph Blackwell
- Capt. Alexander Breckinridge
- Capt. John Gillison
- Capt. Abraham Hite
- Capt. Francis Muir
- Capt. Clough Shelton


Total Patriots Engaged - 6,577
Capt. Hugh Godwin - POW, Regiment Unknown

Capt. William Richardson - POW, Regiment Unk

Maj. Gen. Henry Clinton - Commander

British Regulars led by Maj. Gen. Alexander Leslie with the following breakdown:

Light Infantry and Grenadiers:

1st Battalion of Light Infantry led by Lt. Col. Robert Abercromby with 640 men in the following companies:

7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers) Light Infantry Company - Capt. James W. Baille

22nd Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. William Raymond

33rd Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. William Gore

37th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Eyre Coote

42nd Regiment of Foot (Royal Highlanders) Light Infantry Company - Capt. George Dalrymple

54th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Eyre Power Trench

63rd Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Bent Ball

70th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - "Captain Unknown"

74th Regiment of Foot (Argyll Highlanders) Light Infantry Company - Capt. Campbell of Balnabie

2nd Battalion of Light Infantry led by Lt. Col. Thomas Dundas with 637 men in the following companies:

23rd Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Lionel Smythe

38th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. St. Lawrence Boyd

43rd Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Charles MacLean

57th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. James Graham

64th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. William Snow

76th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. James Fraser

80th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. John Hathorne

84th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Capt. Ronald MacKinnon

1st Battalion of Grenadiers led by Lt. Col. Henry Hope with 611 men in the following companies:

7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers) Grenadier Company - Capt. Walter Home

17th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. George Phillip Hooke

23rd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Thomas Peter

33rd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Hildebrand Oakes

37th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Kenneth McKenzie

38th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Matthew Millet

42nd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. John Peebles

43rd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. John Hatfield

2nd Battalion of Grenadiers led by Lt. Col. John Yorke with 526 men in the following companies:

22nd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Henry Elwes

54th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Stephen Broomfield

57th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. James Dalrymple

63rd Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - "Captain Unknown"

64th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Thomas Freeman

70th Regiment of Foot Grenadier Company - Capt. Thomas Dunbar

74th Regiment of Foot (Argyll Highlanders) Grenadier Company - Capt. Ludovick Colquhoun

Royal Regiment of Artillery led by Maj. Peter Traille with 200 men in the following three (3) battalions:
- 3rd Battalion, Number 1 Company, Capt. Thomas Johnson
- 3rd Battalion, Number 6 Company, Maj. Peter Traille
- 4th Battalion, Number 1 Company, Number 2 Company, Number 3 Company, Number 4 Company, Number 5 Company, and Number 8 Company - Capt. Robert Collins

Hesse-Kassel Artillery - Unknown Captain

Slaves Employed in the Artillery - 154

Royal Navy Artillery led by Capt. George Keith Elphinstone in the following batteries:

Fort Johnson Battery with 3 guns

Fenwick Point Battery with 10 guns

Number 2 Battery with 13 guns - Capt. Evans

Number 6 Battery with hot shot - Capt. Lawson

Number 7 Battery with 21 guns - Ensign Abbot

Corps of Guides and Pioneers led by Col. Beverly Robinson with the following four (4) known companies, led by:
- Capt. John Aldington, with 20 men
- Capt. Francis Fraser's Company - Lt. John Stark, with 7 men
- Capt. McAlpine's Company - Lt. Benedict Eli, with 27 men
- Capt. Peter McPherson, with 18 men

Brigade of Engineers led by Maj. James Moncrieff

Lt. Wilson

Black Pioneers - Capt. Allen Stewart

Clarke's Brigade led by Lt. Col. Alured Clarke with the following breakdown:

7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers) - Lt. Col. Alured Clarke with 463 men

23rd Regiment of Foot (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) - Maj. Thomas Mecan with 400 men

Webster's Corps led by Lt. Col. James Webster with the following breakdown:

33rd Regiment of Foot - Maj. William Dansey with 450 men

Hesse-Kassel Feld Jäger Korps - Lt. Col. Ludwig Johan Adolph von Wurmb with 224 men, including Maj. Phillip von Wurmb and Capt. von Rau.

2nd Company - Capt. Johann Ewald with 80 men

Capt. Moritz von Donop

Lawson Swivel Guns - Capt. Johann Hinrichs with 2 men

III Feld Jäger Regiment Anspach-Beyreuyth - Capt. Friedrich Wilhelm von Röder with 46 men

Huyn's Brigade led by Maj. Gen. Johann Christoph von Huyn in the following breakdown:

63rd Regiment of Foot - Maj. James Wemyss with 400 men

64th Regiment of Foot - Maj. Robert McLeroth with 350 men, including Capt. Peter Russell

Hesse-Kassel Garrison Regiment von Benning led by Col. Friedrich von Benning and Lt. Col. Franz Kurtz, with the following officers:
- Maj. Johann Philip Hillebrand
- Capt. Heinrich Sonneborn
- Capt. Reinhard Heilmann
- Capt. Dietrict Reinhard

60th Regiment of Foot (Royal Americans), 2nd Battalion - Capt. Benjamin Wickham with 45 men

German Auxiliaries:

Hesse-Kassel Garrision Regiment von Wissenbach led by Lt. Col. Fredrich von Porbeck.

Hessian Grenadiers led by Maj. Gen. Henrich Julius von Kospoth with the following battalions:

1st Battalion - Lt. Col. Otto Wilhelm von Linsingen with 350 men

2nd Battalion - Col. Von Lengercke with 360 men

3rd Battalion - Col. Friedrich Heinrich von Schuter with 365 men

4th Battalion - Maj. Wilhelm Graff with 450 men

Provincials (Loyalist Militia) led by Col. Edmund Fanning of the King's American Regiment with 100 men, including the following officers:
- Lt. Col. George Campbell - Lt. Colonels' Company
- Maj. James Grant
- Capt. Isaac Atwood
- Capt. Thomas Chapman
- Capt. Robert Gray
- Capt. John William Livingston

British Reinforcements from Georgia led by Brig. Gen. James Patterson - totalling 1,750 men:

British Regulars led by Lt. Col. Alexander McDonald of the 71st Regiment of Foot (Fraser's Highlanders) in two battalions:

1st Battalion - Unknown commander, with Capt. Norman McLeod and 378 men

2nd Battalion - Maj. Archibald McArthur with 491 men

Light Infantry led by Maj. Colin Graham in the following companies:

16th Regiment of Foot Light Infantry Company - Maj. Colin Graham with 126 men

71st Regiment of Foot Light (Fraser's Highlanders) Infantry Company - Capt. Hutchinson with 117 men

New Jersey Volunteers, 3rd Battalion Light Company - Capt. Peter Campbell

17th Regiment of Light Dragoons - Capt. William Henry Talbot with 73 men.

Brigade of Engineers - Black Pioneers led by Capt. Angus Campbell with 20 men plus 186 slaves

Provincials led by Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton with the following companies:

British Legion Infantry - Maj. Charles Cochrane with 287 men

British Legion Cavalry - Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton with 211 men

American Volunteers led by Maj. Patrick Cunningham with 335 men in the following five (5) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Abraham DePeyster
- Capt. Charles McNeill
- Capt. James Dunlap
- Capt. Samuel Ryerson
- Capt.-Lt. Frederick DePeyster

SC Royalists led by Col. Alexander Innes with:

1st Battalion led by Lt. Col. Joseph Robinson in the following seven (7) known companies, led by:
- Colonel's Company - Capt.-Lt. Charles Lindsay
- Lt. Col. Joseph Robinson with 36 men
- Capt. Faight Risinger with 39 men
- Capt. John York's Company - Lt. Francis Fralis with 43 men
- Capt. Robert Pearis with 38 men
- Capt. Martin Livingston with 49 men
- Capt. Levi Youman with 52 men

2nd Battalion led by Lt. Col. Evan McLauren in the following two (2) known companies, led by:
- Lt. Col. McLauren's Company - Lt. David Black with 55 men
- Capt. John Murphey with 60 men

Royal NC Regiment led by Lt. Col. John Hamilton with the following three (3) known companies, led by:
- 1st Company - Lt. John Martin
- 2nd Company - Maj. Nicholas Welsh
- 3rd Company - Capt. Daniel Manson

GA Loyalists led by Maj. James Wright with 32 men

GA Dragoons led by Capt. Archibald Campbell with 40 men

NY Volunteers led by Lt. Col. George Turnbull, with Maj. Henry Sheridan, Capt. William Johnston, and Capt. Bernard Kane

Reinforcements from New York arriving on April 18, 1780:

Col. Max von Westerhagen - Commanding Officer

42nd Regiment of Foot (Royal Highlanders) led by Lt. Col. Duncan McPherson with two battalions:

1st Battalion led by Maj. Charles Graham

2nd Battalion led by Lt. Col. Duncan McPherson

Hesse-Kassel Fusiler Regiment von Dittfurth led by Col. Max von Westerhagen, with Maj. Ernst von Bork, Capt. Wilhelm von Malsburg, and Capt. Heinrich Hugo Scheffer

Prince of Wales American Regiment led by Lt. Col. Thomas Pattinson with 334 men

Queen's Rangers led by Lt. Col. John Graves Simcoe with 200 men in the following ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Capt. Stair Agnew
- Capt. James Kerr
- Capt. John McKay - Highland Company
- Capt. Robert McCrea
- Capt. John McDill - Grenadier Company
- Capt. William Moncrief
- Capt. James Murray
- Capt. John Saunders
- Capt David Shank - Wickham's Hussars
- Capt. Francis Stephenson - Light Infantry Company

Volunteers of Ireland led by Col. Francis Lord Rawdon, with the following ten (10) known companies, led by:
- Lord Rawdon's Company - Capt.-Lt. David Dalton with 39 men
- Lt. Col. Wellbore Ellis Doyle with 43 men
- Capt. William Barry with 51 men
- Capt. William Blacker with 45 men
- Grenadier Company - Capt. John Campbell with 55 men
- Capt. John Doyles' Company - Ensign Marcus Ransford with 50 men
- Capt. Charles Hasting's Company - Ensign Edward Gilborne with 45 men
- Capt. James King with 50 men
- Capt. John McMahon with 45 men
- King's Orange Rangers - "Unknown" Capt.

Royal Naval Forces commanded by Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot:

HMS Europe - Capt. Willaim Swiny, with 500 men and 64 guns. [Nominally Arbuthnot's flagship, probably reamined in Port Royal Sound until Charlestown was secured.]

HMS Raisonable - Capt. Henry Francis Evans, with 500 men and 64 guns.

HMS Renown - Capt. George Dawson, with 350 men and 50 guns.

HMS Romulus - Capt. George Gayton, with 280 men and 44 guns.

HMS Rainbow - Capt. John Kendall, with 350 men and 44 guns.

HMS Roebuck - Capt. Sir Andrew Snape Hamond to 16 May 1780, then Capt. Andrew Snape Douglas (namesake and nephew of Hamond), with 280 men and 44 guns. [Flagship of Arbuthnot during the siege.]

HMS Blonde - Capt. Andrew Barkley, with 220 men and 32 guns.

HMS Perseus - Honorable Capt. George Keith Elphinstone, with 20 guns.

HMS Camilla - Capt. John Collins, with 160 men and 20 guns.

HMS Raleigh - Capt. James Gambier, with 220 men and 32 guns.

HMS Virginia - Capt. John Orde, with 200 men and 28 guns.

HMS Richmond - Capt. Charles Hudson, with 220 men and 32 guns.

HMS New Vigilant - Capt. Thomas Goldesbrough, with 160 men and 22 guns

HMS Germaine - Lt. John Mowbrary, with 125 men and 20 guns.

HM Armed Galley Comet - Lt. John McKinley, with 7 guns and 40 men.

HM Armed Galley Scourge, Lt. William Smith.

HM Armed Galley Vindictive, Lt. Tylston Woollam.

HM Armed Galley Viper, Acting Lt. Thomas Chambers.

There were approximately ninety (90) transports in this expedition, not all of them currently known, except for:

HMS Polly - Unknown Capt.

HMS Apollo - Capt. John Adamson

HMS Diana - Unknown Capt.

HMS Silver Eel - Thomas Moore, Master

HMS Aeolus - Anthony McFarlane, Master

Total British Naval Forces - 4,500

[Royal Navy manpower identified above is the "established" or authorized manning. Most ships were undermanned, so the number is certainly the top end.]

Total British Ground Forces - 12,847

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Updates and corrections to the British Naval forces provided by Bob Brooks of Maine in November of 2009.


© 2012 - J.D. Lewis - PO Box 1188 - Little River, SC 29566 - All Rights Reserved