December 6, 1608 to January 3, 1670
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle (December 6, 1608-January 3, 1670), served with distinction in the Parliamentary army and under the Commonwealth (Oliver Cromwell's regime). He was distinguished both as a general, naval commander, and civil administrator under Cromwell. But on Cromwell's death, Monck realized that it was either Charles II on the throne, or chaos. His services were rewarded with the title of Duke of Albemarle and a large pension.
George Monck was an English soldier and politician. He took part in the disastrous expedition against Cádiz (1625) and fought against the Spanish in the Netherlands. After service in the Bishops Wars, he was given a command in Ireland and was there when the English Civil War began (1642).
He returned to England to fight for King Charles I, was captured at Nantwich in 1644, and was not released until 1646. He gained the confidence of Parliament and was commissioned to help subdue the Irish rebellion. In 1650, he accompanied Oliver Cromwell to Scotland and in 1651 was left to complete the subjugation of the Scots.
In 1652, Monck became a general of the fleet in the first of the Dutch Wars, and in 1654 he resumed his command in Scotland, which he maintained until 1660.
Monck believed in the supremacy of civil authority over the military, and when the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell collapsed (1659), he supported the re-assembled Rump Parliament (what remained of the Long Parliament after Prides Purge of 1648) against the army under Gen. John Lambert.
Monck marched on London in 1660 and seized control, however, he ordered the Rump to fill its vacant seats and then dissolve itself prior to the election of a free Parliament. Monck was an effective diplomat as well as an able soldier. In the next few months he applied himself to the delicate task of reconciling the army (largely republican) to growing public sympathy for a restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
Following the election of the strongly royalist Convention Parliament, he finally declared openly for the Restoration of Charles II, convinced that it was the only alternative to anarchy. Acting on Moncks advice, Charles II issued the Delcaration of Breda, and Monck secured an invitation for Charles II to return.
After the Restoration, honors were heaped upon Monck: he was appointed gentleman of the bedchamber, privy councillor, master of the horse, and commander of all military forces; created Duke of Albemarle; and granted estates and a pension.
In 1666, he shared with Prince Rupert command of the fleet in the second Dutch War. He was left in charge of London at the time of the Great Plague (1665) and the Great Fire (1666).
On March 1, 1669, the Lords Proprietors decided to implement the first part of their Fundamental Constitutions, before they were even finalized and issued, and they gave the eldest of all Lords Proprietors the title of "Palatine," and this title would be handed to the next eldest Lords Proprietor upon the death of the previous Palatine. George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, was named the first Palatine for the Carolina province on this date.
Upon his death in 1670, his share of Carolina was inherited by his eldest son, Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle. Also upon his death in 1670, John Berkeley, 1st Baron of Stratton was named as the second Palatine of Carolina.
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